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:// Gaynor, N. (2011). In-Active citizenship and the depoliticization of community development in Ireland. Community Development Journal, 46(1), 27-41. Kavacs, J. (2015). Ciema jēdziena vēsturiskā attīstība [Village Concept Historical Development]. Retrieved from Kenny, S., Fanany, I., & Rahayu, S. (2013). Community development in Indonesia westernization or doing it their way? Community Development Journal, 48(2), 280-297. http

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). The Smart Villages Initiative: Findings 2014 – 2017 . Cambridge: Trinity College. [13] Iždonaitė, S. (2012). Kražiai: nykstantys ar atgyjantys? Istorija, dabartis, perspektyvos. Kaimo raidos kryptys žinių visuomenėje. 3, 156–165. [14] Kolbadi, N., Mohammadi, M. & Namvar, F. (2015). Smart Growth Theory as One of the Main Paradigms of Sustainable City. International Journal of Review in Life Sciences. 5(9), 209–219. [15] Marsden, T. & Sonnino, R. (2008). Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK. Journal of Rural

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Akteurskooperation. Wien: Institute for Urban and Social Research at the University of Vienna. [9] Damyanovic, D. & Reinwald, F. (2011). The comprehensive village renewal program in Burgenland [Research Study]. Wien: Universität für Bodenkultur. [10] Damyanovic, D. & Reinwald, F. (2011a). Umfassende Dorferneuerung im Burgenland als Planungsinstrument zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung des ländlichen Raumes - eine Chance?.Zoll+ Österreichische Schriftenreihe für Landschaft und Freiraum 18, 18-25. [11] Elbe, J. (2011). Die Wirksamkeit von Sozialkapital in der Regionalentwicklung

The depopulation of the Bulgarian villages

The depopulation process in Bulgaria, especially in rural areas, is intensifying due to deepening unfavourable trends in the dynamics of demographic processes. Depopulation is a typical process in the fourth phase of demographic transition in rural areas of Bulgaria. The death rates exceed birth rates in the rural areas in the mid-1970s. The size of rural population and the number of villages in the country has been decreasing in the last decades. A large part of the villages were affected by depopulation processes during the period 1985-2007. A high depopulation level is observed in border and mountainous regions. The depopulation generates an array of different negative trends in the spatial aspect - in socio-economic development, technical and social infrastructure, as well as the erasure of many small villages. The regional development plans need to embed measures for infrastructural development in order to attract and retain residents, utilise natural and cultural-historical heritage, and to stimulate economic activities and the development of various types of tourism, etc.


It is known that groundwater is an indispensable element without which we cannot think of life on our planet. It is also known that around 50% of the world’s population uses drinking water sources to meet the existential needs. Increment of population, industrial development and environmental pollution in our globe, directly or indirectly, has not only impacted groundwater pollution, but has also contributed in reducing the amount of water needed to meet elementary needs of man and other living beings. Therefore, for humanity, proper monitoring of groundwater became a priority in order to identify pollution levels and prevention of potable water sources from eventual contamination. Although Kosovo has sufficient water reserves, in most villages in the absence of infrastructure, the rural population in most cases for the purpose of providing drinking water uses water wells and springs. For this very reason, we have assessed the quality of the water wells located in the central part of Kosovo, in the village Kopiliq of Skenderaj. To assess the water quality of these wells, we have set the monitoring network, based on five monitoring points (wells), determining the organoleptic, physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological characteristics. Obtained sample results were compared with the reference values of Directive 98/83/EC – for drinking water quality and some wells resulted in exceeding the reference values for nitrite, chloride and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas all wells were highly contaminated with bacteria.


Ground magnetic and electrical resistivity survey were undertaken to investigate the occurrence and geometry of iron ore deposit around Tajimi village, Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria. The generated residual map of the ground-magnetic data acquired at 250 stations along 15 traverses revealed numerous prominent anomalies, mostly trending in the N-S direction. The radial power spectrum revealed the depth to magnetic sources between 6 m to 20 m. The interpreted VES data characterized the area into three subsurface layers: top soil, presumably iron ore layer and weathered/fresh basement. The result of vertical electrical sounding curves showed a sudden drop in resistivity (42-241 Ωm) over high magnetic response. The geo-electric section revealed that the study area is generally characterized with thin overburden (0.5-1.7 m) and the thickness of the second layer (presumed to be the iron ore layer) ranged between 6.2-25.1 m. The study concluded that areas of high magnetic intensity showed a sudden drop in resistivity value for the VES points, which give an indication of the presence of an electrically conductive structure presumed to be iron ore deposits.