to propel East Asia toward modernization and democratization ( King 1996 ).
2 The Concept of “People as the Roots” in Traditional VietnameseConfucianism
In 1945, the monarchy was officially abolished in Vietnam, subsequently initiating the building of a democratic republic of Vietnam. However, even in the monarchy, democratic elements could still emerge and develop. Democratic ideals, norms, and values are not completely opposed or eliminated by the monarchy, because a monarchy or a republic refers to the form of government, while democracy or dictatorship