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., FARUK, Ö., AKINCI ULUKANLIGIL, M., RUŞEN, M., ÇETIN, H., ÇAY, N. (2011): Hydatid cyst viability: the effect of scolicidal agents on the scolex in the daughter cyst. Turk. J. Med. Sci., 41 (6): 1001 - 1006. DOI: 10.4103/1319-3767.84493 KAYAALP, C., AYDIN, C., OLMEZ, A., ISIK, S., YILMAZ, S. (2011): Leakage tests reduce the frequency of biliary fi stulas following hydatid liver cyst surgery. Clinics, 66(3):421 - 424. DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000300010 KRVAVICA, S., MARTINCIC, T., ASAJ, R. (1959): Metabolism of amino acids in some parasites II. Amino acids in hydatid

References 1. World Health Organization, Cardiovascular disease (CVDs), 2016. Available from: 2. Townsend N, Nichols M, Scarborough P, Rayner M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe — epidemiological update 2015. Eur Heart J . 2015;36:2673-2674. 3. Nichols M, Townsend N, Scarborough P, Rayner M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update. Eur Heart J . 2014;35:2950-2959. 4. Camici PG, Prasad SK, Rimoldi OE. Stunning, hibernation, and assessment of myocardial viability. Circulation . 2008

REFERENCES 1. van Loon RB, Veen G, Kamp O, Baur LHB, van Rossum AC. Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction: the influence of viability and revascularization — an echocardiographic substudy of the VIAMI-trial. Trials . 2014;15:329. 2. Elfigih IA, Henein MY. Non-invasive imaging in detecting myocardial viability: Myocardial function versus perfusion. Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc . 2014;5:51-56. 3. Shaw LJ, Berman DS, Maron DJ, et al. Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention to reduce ischemic burden: results

REFERENCES 1. Florian A, Jurcut R, Ginghina C, Bogaret J. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ischemic Heart Disease – A Clinical Review. J Med Life . 2011;4:330-345. 2. Saeed M, Van TA, Krug R, Hetts SW, Wilson MW. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther . 2015;5:290-310. 3. Partington SL, Kwong RY, Dorbala S. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability. Heart Fail Rev . 2011;16:381-395. 4. Bhat A, Gan GC, Tan TC, Hsu C, Denniss AR. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

Bioener 1996; 41: 135-60. Neumann E, Sowers AE, Jordan CA. Electroporation and electrofusion in cell biology. New York: Plenum Press; 1989. Cemazar M, Jarm T, Miklavcic D, Macek-Lebar A, Ihan A, Kopitar NA, et al. Effect of electric-field intensity on electropermeabilization and electrosensitivity of various tumor-cell lines in vitro. Electro Magnetobiol 1998; 17: 263-72. Canatella PJ, Karr JF, Petros JA, Prausnitz MR. Quantitative study of electroporation-mediated molecular uptake and cell viability. Biophys J 2001; 80: 755-64. Macek-Lebar A, Miklavcic D. Cell

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observations and clinical implications. Circulation . 1990;81:1161-1172. 15. Chatterjee K, Swan HJ, Parmley WW, Sustaita H, Marcus HS, Matloff J. Influence of direct myocardial revascularization on left ventricular asynergy and function in patient with coronary heart disease with and without previous myocardial infarction. Circulation . 1973;47:276-286. 16. Wijns W, Vatner SF, Camici PG. Hibernating myocardium. N Engl J Med . 1998;339:173-181. 17. Partington SL, Kwong RY, Dorbala S. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability. Heart Fail Rev . 2011


Background: Trauma in its early stages leads to an acute inflammatory condition affecting all cellular lines. Neutrophil granulocytes make up the largest population of human white blood cells and are fundamental to the innate immune system. The objective of our pilot study was to evaluate neutrophil death and viability alterations in critically ill trauma patients in correlation with their clinical outcome.

Material and method: Critical ill trauma patients were enrolled in the study. In order to assess alterations in cellular death, blood samples were drawn using EDTA containing tubes and analyzed in the first twenty four hours after admission, then after forty eight and seventy two hours. Annexin V was used as a marker for apoptotic cells and propidium iodide for necrotic cells.

Results: The first two cases exhibited an increase in cellular viability by the second day as shown by a small increase in neutrophil apoptosis and a decrease in neutrophil necrosis. These patients progressed to a positive clinical outcome. The second two cases showed slight modifications in either physiological or pathological cellular death, and increasing levels of cellular necrosis. These patients progressed to a negative clinical outcome.

Conclusions: These cases suggest that neutrophil cell viability and death were associated with the patient’s clinical outcome.


Trauma affects the activity of the innate immune system. The objective of this case report is to present the case that prompted us to analyse all the peripheral white blood cell lines. A 19 year old male patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Clinic with severe head trauma. The final diagnosis was set to be severe cerebral trauma with subarachnoid hemorrhage, right frontal and temporal cerebral contusions, diffuse cerebral edema, left parietal and temporal fracture, sphenoid hemosinus and right sided lung contusions.

Material and Method: Whole blood was immediatly analyzed by flow cytometry for leukocytes. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V, necrotic cells were stained with propidium iodide. Samples were drawn three consecutive days.

Results: Lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes all showed marked increase in viability and decrease in necrosis during the biological monitoring in correlation with a positive clinical outcome. The most important changes were noted in the monocyte population.

Discussion: Although we started out monitoring neutrophil viability and death, this particular case prompted us not to overlook other leucocyte populations.

Conclusion: The apparent positive relationship between this patient’s positive clinical outcome and cellular viability and death changes is promising but they warrant further study.

-Silva, N.S. (2013). Cell viability and adhesion on diamond-like carbon films containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Appl. Surf. Sci. 266, 176–181. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.11.124. 41. Scheers, M.E., Ekwall, B. & Dierickx, J.P. (2001). In vitro long-term cytotoxicity testing of 27 MEIC chemicals on HepG2 cells and comparison with acute human toxicity data. Toxicol . In Vitro 15, 153–161. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.07.001. 42. George, F. & Timbrell, A. (2006). In vitro cytotoxicity assays: Comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell