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chance), Ria Novosti (18 August): available at: (17 June 2015). El Universal (2012): Las leyes de Chávez son mas que las de los 40 anos (The decrees of Chavez are more numerous than in the 1940 s), 19 June 2012: 1-2. El Universal (2015): Russian, Venezuelan Defense Ministers hold cooperation meeting, El Universal (11 February): available at: (8 April 2015). Hermann, Isabella (2012): The Relevance of

[1] Acosta, M., Cazorla, D., Garvett, M. (2002): Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcon, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level. Invest. Clin., 43: 173–181 [2] Bahader, S., Ali, G., Salan, A., Khalil, H., Kahlil, N. (1995): Effects of Enterobius vermicularis infection on intelligence quotient (IQ) and anthropometric measurements of Egyptian rural children. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasit., 25: 183–194 [3] Botero, D., Restrepo, M. (1984): Human Parasitoses. Corporation for Biological Research, Medellín, Colombia [4] Cook

. Entomologische Blätter 31: 34. OCHS G. 1948: Checklist of Neotropical Gyrinoidea (Col.). Revista de Entomologia 19: 565-567. OCHS G. 1949: A revision of the Gyrinoidea of Central America (Coleoptera). Revista de Entomologia 20: 253-300. OCHS G. 1953: Der jetzige Stand unserer Kenntnise über die Gyriniden-Fauna von Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 1: 181-208. OCHS G. 1954: Die Gyriniden Perus und der übrigen südamerikanischen Kordilleren. Beiträge zur Fauna Perus 4: 116-155. OCHS G. 1955: Sobre nuevos interesantes Gyrinidae (Coleoptera) de Venezuela, y de otras partes de


Nosema ceranae is a pathogen of Apis mellifera, which seems to have jumped from its original host Asiatic honey bee Apis ceranae. Nosemosis which affects the honey bee Apis mellifera is caused by two parasitic fungi described as etiologic agents of the disease. Nosema apis was the only microsporidian infection identified in A. mellifera until N. ceranae in Taiwan and Europe. Nosema spp. positive samples of adult worker bees from the Venezuelean state of Lara were determined through light microscopy of spores. Samples were then tested to determine Nosema species (N.apis/N.ceranae) using previously reported PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene. A multiplex PCR assay was used to differentiate both N. apis and N. ceranae species. Only N. ceranae was found in the analyzed samples and the percentage of infected foragers fluctuated between 18% and 60%.

References Barthlott, W., Schmit-Neuerburg, V., Nieder, J. & Engwald, S. 2001. Diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes: A comparison of secondary vegetation and primary montane rain forest in the Venezuelan Andes. Plant Ecology 152: 145–156. Córdova-Cháves, O., Aptroot, A., Castillo-Campos, G., Cáceres, M. E. S. & Pérez-Pérez, R. E. 2014. Three new lichen species from cloud forest in Veracuz, Mexico. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 35: 157–162. Córdova-Cháves, O., Castillo-Campos, G., Pérez-Pérez, R. E., García-Franco, J. G. & Cáceres, M. E. S. 2016. Alpha

Historiam. – Franfurt: Officina Theodori de Bry. Champlain S. de., 1601, 1989: Brief Discovrs des Choses plvs remarqvables que Samvel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage quil en affaict en icelles en l’année 1599 et en l’année 1601, comme ensuite. In: Vannini de Gerulewicz M. (ed.): El Mar de los Descubridores. 199–239. Caracas: Fundación de Promoción Cultural de Venezuela. Colección Viajes y Descripciones. Champlain S. de., 1613: Les voyages du Sieur de Champlain, Saintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la Marine. – Paris: J

Andrzej Bonasewicz CHANGES IN SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF VENEZUELA'S ECONOMY Spatial structure of Venezuela's economy shows large disproportions — both with regard to sectors as well as regional—which, despite at- tempts at their reducing, are continuously growing. The existing spatial dichotomy has its roots in the colonial period. Creation of an administrative centre of the colony contributed to con- centration of the population and economic activities in the vicinity of the capital. The economic activities gave rise to the central region, con- centration of

tremátodos digéneos registrados en território venezoelano [Attempt of a catalog of the digenetic trematodes registered in Venezuelan territory]. Mem. Fund. La Salle de Cienc. Nat. , 18: 19 – 36 (In Spanish) CBRO – Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. (2014): Lista de aves do Brasil [Brazilian Committee of Ornithological Records. (2014): List of birds of Brazil]. 11ª Ed. Retrieved August 15, 2016 from: . Acesso em: 15/08/2016. (In Portuguese) D iaz -U ngria , C. (1973): Endoparasitic helminths of Venezuela. Cient. Vet., 3 (1/2): 37 – 242

. Draft manuscript deposited in Missouri Botanical Garden Library. Dressler R. L. 1981. The orchids: natural history and classification. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Dressler R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR . Dunsterville G. C. K. & Garay L. A. 1965. Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated, Vol. 3. London, Andre Deutsch Limited. Ferreira A. W. C., Baptista D. H. & Pansarin E. R. 2010. Triphora uniflora (Orchidaceae: Triphorcae): a new species and the first record of the genus Triphora Nutt. for Sao

-centred regions (in my doctoral dissertation), the core-periphery (or growth pole) theorem, and in the early 1980s, the world city hypothesis. It also launched me on a career in development planning that over the next 14 years would take me to Brazil, Korea, Venezuela, Mexico, Ja- pan and Chile. Hoselitz was by no means the only influence during my student years in the early 1950s, but his pioneering work on the journal was a catalyst that for me brought development studies and particularly the role of cities into sharp focus. Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) is the fourth