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Vegetative progeny were obtained from 46 elms (Ulmus glabra Huds.) by grafting. These grafted trees were planted in 2009 in a clone archive in forest plot 264j in the Bielsk Forest District.

After one year of growth, elm clone survival ranged from 38% to 100% (89% on average). Although all clones were of similar age and were grown under similar conditions, their average height was highly variable and ranged from 99.0 cm (clone no. 9473z) to 186.6 cm (clone no. 9645z), while average root collar diameter ranged from 8.4 mm (clone no. 9473z) to 18.0 mm (clone no. 9645z).

There were large differences crown architectural among the different clones, and variation in average shape of the crown was high (from 2.6 in clone no. 9655 to 3.8 in clone no. 9446z).

Index breeding values determined on the standardized data for height, root collar diameter, crown shape and survival, ranged from -0.71 (clone no. 9473z) to 0.61 (clone no. 9645z). Clones from Czerwony Dwór reached a better breeding value (0.17) than clones from Gołdap (-0.0266), and variation in their average breeding values was high (0.197).


Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC), acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn). The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.


Intense dieback of Fraxinus excelsior L. has been causing rapid changes in advance growth of trees and understory shrub growth of the affected stands. In this study, changes in composition and density of understory were studied in 15 permanent plots (each 235.6 m2), repeatedly sampled in 2005, 2010, and 2015. Within each plot, the number and average height of understory individuals were determined. The successional changes in understory were assessed by Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In total, 11 advance growth and 20 undergrowth species were recorded. A significant increase in the density of understory was observed only in 2015, mainly due to understorey growth of Corylus avellana L., Padus avium Mill., and Lonicera xylosteum L. Regarding advanced growth, the highest density was observed for Ulmus glabra Huds., F. excelsior and Acer platanoides L.; the density of A. platanoides and F. excelsior increased particularly in the period from 2010–2015. The observed successional changes suggested individuality of development of the affected stands according to the composition of the remaining and neighbouring canopy trees.


Assessment of correlations and comparisons of diversity indices between birds communities and vegetation composition of the forest ecosystem is an important subject of synecological research to identify the intensity of human impact on the flora and fauna in megalopolis. Urban recreation is one of the major causes of violation of the structural and functional integrity of the forest ecosystem. Studies on avian complex and phytocoenosis have focused on the impact of urban recreation on the soil surface, compositions of trees, shrub and herbaceous layers and species, trophic and ecological compositions of nesting-birds and feeding-birds communities. This article compares the measurement of the diversity of bird communities and forestry vegetation (diversity indices, dominance indices, evenness indices) in the natural and semi-natural forests of the Kyiv city on a gradient of recreational transformation. The stands formed consist of Quercus robur L., Carpinus betulus L., Acer platanoides L., Tilia cordata L., Ulmus glabra Huds., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Prunus avium L. The floristic list comprised 65 grass species. A total of 49 species of avifauna were found, including 44 species that were protected by the Bern, Bonn and Washington Conventions. There were significant correlations between vertical and horizontal heterogeneities of tree distribution and abundance, species richness and nesting density of birds. The interrelationship between species diversity of birds and floristic richness was also confirmed.

, Warszawa. SKRZYPCZYŃSKA M. 2006. Wpływ zrzenicówki wiązowej Agrochola circellaris [Hufnagel 1766] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na zdrowotność nasion wiązu górskiego Ulmus glabra Huds. Sylwan 7: 35-37. SKRZYPCZYŃSKA M. 2012. Uszkodzenia krótkopędów modrzewia europejskiego Larix decidua Mill. przez owady na wybranych stanowiskach w południowej Polsce. Sylwan 156, 11: 812-818. SOKAL R.R., ROHLF F. J. 2012. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Freeman W. H. and Co., New York. STATSOFT INC. 2010. Statistica for windows. Stat Soft Inc Tulsa

oak seedlings contribute to oak replacement by secondary and associate tree species such as Acer platanoides L., Acer campestre L., Ulmus glabra Huds., Corylus avellana L., Populus tremula L., etc. As a result, valuable oak forests become overgrown or turn into less valuable forests of other species. This reduces the area of oak forests and is a matter of concern to foresters and researchers. The aim of the research was to analyze the current area of oak stands, identify the specifics of occurrence, retention, and growth of natural regeneration of

species in Estonian manor parks is also Tilia cordata ( Nutt, 2017 ) but probably due to the lack of materials other available plants were not rejected and according to the common theory other suitable native deciduous trees were used, which included Ulmus glabra Huds. and Quercus robur L. ( Couch, 1992 ). However, based on the preserved older avenues Acer platanoides L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were also not rejected. At the same time, the local climate did not allow using the many tree and shrub species popular during the baroque era in the garden art of

took shape in the 1960s. In the second half of the decade, the method was used by forest researcher Elmar Kaar to study a stand on the Puhtu peninsula, West Estonia. An increment borer was used to date the oldest elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) at 512 years, a pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) at 230 years and a horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum L.) at 240 years. The oldest oak tree was found to be approximately 600 years old; the dating method, however, was not provided ( Kaar & Kalda, 1970 ). Subsequently, using a 50-cm-long borer, the age of what seems to be the same