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. (2013) and Dobek (2015) . The UTCI index was applied in combination with atmospheric circulation in bioclimatic research concerning the discussed city by Bartoszek et al. (2017) . Dobek and Krzyżewska (2015) explored the bioclimatic conditions of Lublin by analysing frequencies of occurrence of particular UTCI classes in the years 1952–2015. No studies are currently available analysing long-term bioclimatic conditions in the centre of the city and its peripheries. The objective of the paper is to characterise general bioclimatic conditions in Lublin and in its

the level of discomfort predicted for an area with highly reflective gravel was higher when using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) than it was when using the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of thermal stress that is generated on clear and sunny summer days for a series of different ground-cover surfaces and shade conditions, by using UTCI in particular. Materials and methods UTCI is an international standard ( ) defined by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action 730

adapted to the cold environment. Yet, even in the 21st century, with the rising global temperature due to climate change, many people die from hypothermia – a cause of death that is fully preventable ( Krzyżewska et al. 2017 ). The assessment of biometeorological conditions currently involves the application of advanced indices based on the human heat balance equation. Such indices include the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), developed as a result of the collaboration of an international research team within the scope of COST Action 730 (eds. Jendritzky et al

, AMS, 129-133. Jendritzky G., Havenith G., Weihs P., Batchvarova E. (eds.), 2009, Towards a Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI for assessing the thermal environment of the human being , Final Report COST Action 730. Kampmann B., Broede P., Havenith G., Jendritzky G., 2008, Der Entwicklungsstand des klimatischen Belastungs-Index UTCI (Universal Thermal Climate Index), [in:] Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, Produkt- und Produktions-Ergonomie – Aufgabe für Entwickler und Planer, 54. Kongress der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft , Dortmund: GfA-Press, 243

REFERENCES Amigo J., Ramirez C., 1998, A bioclimatic classification of Chile: woodland communities in the temperate zone, Plant Ecology 136, 9–26. Błażejczyk K., McGregor G., 2007, Warunki biotermiczne a umieralność w wybranych aglomeracjach europejskich [Biothermal conditions and the death rate in selected European agglomerations], Przegląd Geograficzny 79, 3 and 4, 401-423. Błażejczyk K., Broede P., Fiala D, Havenith G., Holmér I., Jendritzky G., Kampmann B., Kunert A., 2009, Principles of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and its application

predominant winds, depending on regional and local circulation patterns ( Niedźwiedź 1983 , 2012 ). Within the large number of biometeorological indices that have been proposed for assessing bioclimatic conditions ( Epstein & Moran 2006 ; Błażejczyk et al. 2012 ; de Freitas & Grigorieva 2017 ) the newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), which defines thermal stress in humans, is more and more frequently applied in bioclimatic research ( Morabito et al 2014 ; Urban & Kysely 2014 ; Kolendowicz et al. 2018 ). General climate and synoptic classifications

human thermal discomfort in Athens and its connection to atmospheric circulation. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13, 12: 3271-3279. BŁAŻEJCZYK K., BŁAŻEJCZYK M., 2010, BioKlima 2.6, software,, (31.01.2016). BŁAŻEJCZYK K., BROEDE P., FIALA D., HAVENITH G., INGVAR HOLMER I., JENDRITZKY G., KAMPMANN B., 2010, UTCI - Nowy wskaźnik oceny obciążeń cieplnych człowieka. Przegląd Geograficzny, 1, 8: 49-68. BŁAŻEJCZYK K., KUNERT A., 2011, Bioklimatyczne uwarunkowania rekreacji i turystyki w Polsce. Monografie IGiPZ PAN, 13

of the area is covered by a mountain foreland and the Sudetes Mountains, the highest peak being Śnieżka. During recent decades, weather conditions related to heat stress have frequently been observed in the lowlands. The summer seasons of 2015 and 2018, when thermal records were reached in most of the region under discussion, are good examples of such periods. Very high air temperatures contributed to an increase in biometeorological indices, including Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). This is currently a popular biometeorological tool and was used in the

segments of the human body’, DWD, Annalen der Meteorologie, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 313-316. Błażejczyk, K 2007, ‘Multiannual and seasonal weather fluctuations and tourism in Poland’, in Climate Change and Tourism Assessment and Copying Strategies, eds B Amelung, K Błażejczyk & A Matzarakis, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Maastricht-Warsaw-Freiburg, pp. 69-90. Błażejczyk, K 2011, ‘Mapping of UTCI in local scale (the case of Warsaw)’, Prace i Studia Geograficzne WGSR UW, vol. 47, pp. 275-283. Błażejczyk, K & Błażejczyk, A 2013