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An Automatic Method to Identify Citations to Journals in News Stories: A Case Study of UK Newspapers Citing Web of Science Journals

). Prestigious health journals are frequently covered ( Conrad, 1999 ; Lewison et al., 2008 ; Van Trigt et al., 1994 ), because they may have more relevance for the public. Major UK newspaper stories about biomedical research in 2001 cited New Scientist (7% - a magazine rather than a journal), British Medical Journal (6%), Lancet (4%) and Nature (3%) ( Lewison, 2002 ). In 2008–9, the UK-based weekly science magazine New Scientist drew mainly from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (7%), Nature (6.5%), Science (4.6%), Lancet (3.9%), and New England

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Finding proof negative: Tracing the empirical footprint of collective linguistic avoidance in historical American and British newspaper texts


Linguistic avoidance - the conscious or unconscious non-use of a problematic language expression and/or the substitution of another - is difficult to demonstrate empirically in historical terms, as it constitutes a negative action that leaves no positive trace. However, all hope is not lost for the empiricist: the very conspicuousness of the problematic expression’s absence can in fact be measured across a time period. A perhaps unique case in point in English is the avoidance of number-word expressions such as five millions of individuals and, alternatively, five million individuals precisely at the point in history when it became unclear which of the two expressions was the correct one, i.e. when usage was shifting. At this point, newspapers in the US and the UK, following patterns that were similar but not contemporaneous, began to favor numerical expressions like 5,000,000 individuals. The timing of the shift corresponded to the time gap between US and UK newspapers in their respective gradual rejection of the now obsolescent (Obs) five millions of individuals in favor of the present-day English (PdE) construction five million individuals. Then, in both countries, newspapers largely discontinued the use of numerical expressions like 5,000,000 individuals when it had become clear that the PdE construction had prevailed. In other words, the numerical expression was conspicuously substituted to avoid choosing between the Obs and PdE versions of the numberword expression, and this avoidance left a clear empirical trace.

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The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

. (2004). International migration scenarios for 27 European countries, 2002-2052. CEFMR Working Paper (Warsaw) , pp. 1-69. [5] Boeri, T., & Brücker, H. (2005). Why are Europeans so tough on migrants?. Economic Policy , pp. 630-703. [6] Drbohlav, D. (2005) The Czech Republic: from liberal policy to EU membership, Retrived from http://www.migraț [7] Drzewiecka, J. A., Hoops, J. F., & Thomas, R. J. (2014). Rescaling the state and disciplining workers in discourses on EU Polish migration in UK Newspapers

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