Land abandonment is a complex multi-dimensional process with interlinked economic, environmental and social aspects. This paper presents a case study of an isolated hill sheep farming community in SW Ireland, where a combination of low incomes, ageing population, lack of successors and strong environmental constraints are perceived to be among the main factors leading to their demise. However, the uplands they have grazed for generations are of high nature conservation value, and depend on active management to maintain both their ecology and landscapes. The research, which is based on a combination of interviews and farming systems research, highlights the misfit between what the mountain can produce, light hill lamb, and what the globalised market demands. The paper argues that if ‘farming for conservation’ is the new function of such farming systems, then we should consider decoupling public goods payments from agricultural subsidies, along with integrating agriculture in disadvantaged areas within a broader rural development framework. The research aims to fill the gap between macro policy and the micro reality of an upland community on a self-declared ‘tipping point’.
This paper proposes a new method of idiographic measurement for dynamic assessment (DA) intervention. There are two main methods of measurement for DA intervention; split -half tests and integrated scoring systems. Split-half tests of ability have proved useful from a research perspective. Integrated scoring systems coupled with case studies are useful from a practitioner perspective. The purpose of this research is to bridge the gap between research and practice by developing a methodology that is compatible with both. To this end the paper proposes a measureable idiographic method of measurement, which utilises multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and general procrustean analysis (GPA) to analyse the result of card-sort data gathered from a learner across the entire intervention. This approach provides a method of assessment, which is both compatible with individual intervention and suited to building a body of evidence-based research for DA. An example of the method in practice is given for illustrative purposes. The initial results suggest that this approach provides a methodology that satisfies the requirements of both practitioners when formulating targeted intervention and researchers who require methods of measurement of change in ability of the individual over time.
Despite the fact that Documentary Letters of Credit are involved in process of International Trade for many centuries, but their legal personality is very new and their life span is much shorter than their existence. In the middle of Eightieth Century, Lord Mansfield introduced legal aspects of LC operation for the first time to the Common Law System. Later, International Chamber of Commerce started to codified regulations regarding international operation of Documentary Letters of Credit in 1933 under the title of Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Letters of Credit and updated them constantly up to current date. However, many aspects of LC operation including fraud are not codified under the UCP which subjects them to national laws. Diversified nature of National Laws in different countries can be source of confusion and problem for many businessmen active in international operation of Documentary Letters of Credit. Such differences are more problematic in Common Law countries as a result of following precedent. For Example, legal aspects of International LC transactions under British Law are only based on case law, however, American Law addresses Letter of Credit Operation under Article 5 of Unified Commercial Code. Due to important role of English and American law in practice of international trade, current paper will try to compare their approach to autonomy principle of in LC operation, fraud rule as a recognized exception to it and search for answer to following questions what is definition of fraud, and what are standards of proof for fraud in LC operation, under English and American law?
Ronan Carbery, Patrick Gunnigle and Michael Morley
This paper presents a retrospective account of research output in the field of human resource management (HRM) in Ireland. We present a brief contextual overview looking at significant institutional and practice developments in the field, which, in turn were significant for curriculum, educational and research advances. We collected relevant HRM research output spanning 1950-2010, which yielded a total of 195 academic papers. Our analysis of the research output allows us to present an account of the altering profile and contribution of HRM as an academic field in Ireland and demonstrates the broadening of the field of HRM within Ireland.
This paper analyses the impact of stimulating staff creativity and idea generation on the likelihood of innovation. Using data for over 3,000 firms, obtained from the Irish Community Innovation Survey 2008-2010, we examine the impact of six creativity generating stimuli on product, process, organisational and marketing innovation. Our results indicate that the stimuli impact the four forms of innovation in different ways. For instance, brainstorming and multidisciplinary teams are found to stimulate all forms of innovation, rotation of employees is found to stimulate organisational innovation, while financial and non-financial incentives are found to have no effect on any form of innovation. We also find that the co-introduction of two or more stimuli increases the likelihood of innovation more than implementing stimuli in isolation. These results have important implications for management decisions in that they suggest that firms should target their creative efforts towards specific innovation outcomes.
This study sought to determine the effects aggressive/conservative current asset investment and financing policies have on firms′ return for six manufacturing firms listed at Ghana Stock Exchange for a period of 2000-2013. Data were obtained from the annual reports of the firms and the Ghana Stock Exchange. The study adopted longitudinal explanatory non-experimental research design applied to dynamic panel ARDL framework in analyzing the data. The results revealed that the current asset investment and financing policies have highly significant positive effects on returns to equity holders in the long-run. The empirical evidence suggests that conservative current asset investment policies increase firms return while conservative financing policies yields negative returns. The study therefore would enable finance managers to be able to fashion out the appropriate working capital management policies. A firm pursuing conservative current asset investment policy should balance it with aggressive current asset financing policy in order to enhance profitability and create value for their investors.
Josef Polak, Jan Jerabek, Lukas Langhammer, Roman Sotner, Jan Dvorak and David Panek
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems
HERENCSAR, N.—VRBA, K.—KOUDAR, I. : Universal Voltage Conveyor (UVC-N1C 0520), Data Sheet, 2010, http://www.utko.feec.vutbr.cz/~herencsar/UVC_N1C_0520.pdf .
Universal Voltage Conveyor (UVC-N1C 0520), Data Sheet
KOTON, J.—VRBA, K.—KOUDAR, I. : Universal Current Conveyor (UCC) and Second-Generation Current Conveyor
Anthoney M. O’Sullivan, Yvonne C. O’Callaghan, Thomas P. O’Connor and Nora M. O’Brien
Honey is a rich source of antioxidant and antiseptic compounds including Maillard reaction products, vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of digestion on the antioxidant activity of a range of honey samples including two economy brands (Tesco and Lidl), a premium Irish brand (Fainne Oir Fine Foods) and a New Zealand Manuka honey. Samples were subjected to an in-vitro digestion which simulates the human gastric and intestinal digestion system. The antioxidant activity of the honey samples before and after digestion was determined by measuring total phenol content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate assay (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). The ability of the samples to protect against H2O2-induced DNA damage in the Caco-2 cell line was measured by the Comet assay. The Manuka honey had the highest TPC and the Tesco honey had the highest FRAP and DPPH scavenging activity. TPC was not altered following digestion however there was a significant decrease in the FRAP values for Manuka and Tesco honey and in the DPPH radical scavenging activity for all four of the samples. The Tesco and Manuka honeys demonstrated a significant protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells, following digestion. The premium brand honey samples did not demonstrate significantly higher antioxidant activity in comparison with economy brand honey.
Tunable Universal Filter with Current Follower and Transconductance Amplifiers and Study of Parasitic Influences
A universal filter with dual-output current follower (DO-CF), two transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and two passive elements is presented in this paper. The filter is tunable, of the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) type, and operates in the current mode. Our solution utilizes a low-impedance input node and high-impedance outputs. All types of the active elements used can be realized using our UCC-N1B 0520 integrated circuit and therefore the paper contains not only simulation results that were obtained with the help of behavioral model of the UCC-N1B 0520 element, but also the characteristics that were gained by measurement with the mentioned circuit. The presented simulation and measurement results prove the quality of designed filter. Similar multi-loop structures are very-well known, but there are some drawbacks that are not discussed in similar papers. This paper also contains detailed study of parasitic influences on the filter performance.
In 2016, the European Union has launched a new and ambitious project for the future regulation of international trade in the European Union and the rules of its taxation: since the 1 May 2016, the new Union Customs Code (UCC) has entered into force. It revokes the old Community Customs Code (CCC), which was applied since 1992, and passed in the form of EU regulation sets brand-new rules for the application of Common Customs Tariff and calculation of customs duties (tariffs) in all the EU Member States. It is oriented to the creation of the paperless environment for the formalisation of international trade operations (full electronic declaration of customs procedures) and ensuring of a more uniform administration of customs duties in the tax and customs authorities of the Member States in the European Union. Therefore, the article raises and seeks to answer the problematic question whether the Member States of the European Union themselves are ready to implement these ambitious goals and does the actual practice of the Member States support that (considering the practice of the Republic of Lithuania). The research, which is based on the analysis of case law in the Republic of Lithuania (case study of recent tax disputes between the taxpayers and customs authorities that arose immediately before and after the entry into force of the UCC), leads to the conclusion that many problematic areas that may negatively impact the functioning of the new Customs Code remain and must be improved, including an adoption of new legislative solutions.