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LUNDBERG, P. (1985): Dominance behaviour, body weight and fat variations, and partial migration in European blackbirds Turdus merula. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17: 185 - 189. DOI: 10.1007/ BF00299250 MACHALSKA, J. (1980): Cyclocoelum polonicum sp. n. (Trematoda, Cyclocoelidae) from the thrushes Turdus philomelos Br. and T. merula L., Acta Parasitol. Pol., 26: 129 - 136 MORISHITA, K. (1924): Note on two new monostomes with rudimentary ventral sukers. J. Parasitol. Urb., 10: 158 - 165 NORMAN O. D., Vasyl V. T. (2014): Key to the species of Morishitium Wienberg, 1928

coast. Not. Orn. 27: 105-127. Cresswell W. 1997. Interference competition at low competitor densities in blackbird (Turdus merula). J. Anim. Ecol. 66: 461-471. Cresswell W. 1998. Diurnal and seasonal mass variation in Blackbirds (Turdus merula) consequences for mass-dependent predation risk. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 78-90. Desrochers A. 1992a. Age and foraging success in European Blackbirds: variation between and within individuals. Anim. Behav. 43: 885-894. Desrochers A. 1992b. Age-related differences in reproduction by European Blackbirds: restraint or constraint

Palearctic, Vol. V. Tyrant Flycatchers to Thrushes. – Oxford University Press, Oxford Cresswell, W. 1999. Travel distance and mass gain in wintering Blackbirds. – Animal Behaviour 58: 1109–1116. DOI: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1244 Csörgő, T., Fehérvári, P., Karcza, Zs. & Harnos, A. 2017. Exploratory analyses of migration timing and morphometrics of the Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) . – Ornis Hungarica 25(1): 147–176. DOI: 10.1515/orhu-2017-0007 Dominoni, D., Quetting, M. & Partecke, J. 2013. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology. – Proceeding of the

District (AR of Crimea, Ukraine). Branta, 19, 155-159 [In Russian]. Lobkov, V. A., Formanyuk, O. A., Belinsky, A. V. 2001. About nesting of Black Trash (Turdus merula L.) in steppe Black Sea lowland. Transactions of Zoological Museum of Odessa National University, 4, 179-181 [In Russian]. Nazarenko, L. F. 1953. Ecological and faunistic characteristics of the avifauna of the lower reaches of the Dniester River and the prospect of its economic use. Collection of the Biological Faculty of the Odessa State University, 6, 139-155 [In Russian]. Orlov, P. P. 1955. Materials on

Z chromosome linked in the chicken Gallus domesticus . Gene. 197: 225-229. Griffiths R., Tiwari B. 1995. Sex of the last wild Spix's macaw. Nature. 375: 454. Ito H., Sudo-Yamaji A., Abe M., Murase T., Tsubota T. 2003. Sex identification by alternative polymerase chain reaction methods in falconiformes. Zool. Sci. 20: 339-344. Magrath R. D. 1989. Hatching asynchrony and reproductive success in the Blackbird. Nature. 339: 536-538. Magrath R. D. 1991. Nestling weight and juvenile survival in the Blackbird, Turdus merula . J. Anim. Ecol. 60: 335-351. Mulsow R

[1] Bauer, H. G., Bezzel, E., Fiedler, W. (Eds) (2005): Das Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas: alles über Biologie, Gefährdung und Schutz. Nonpasseriformes-Nichtsperlingsvögel. Wiebelsheim: Aula-Verlag, 337 pp. [2] Binder, N. (1971): Beiträge zur Morphologie, Invasionsdynamic und Entwicklung der Helminthen der Amsel (Turdus merula L.). Zool. Beitr., 17: 83–150 [3] Bentz, S., Rigaud, T., Barroca, M., Martin-Laurent F., Bru D., Moreau, J., Faivre, B. (2006): Sensitive measure of prevalence and parasitaemia of haemosporidia from European blackbird (Turdus merula

Juvenile Blackbird (Turdus merula) moulting primaries and secondaries

://, downloaded on 16 May 2017. (in Hungarian) BirdLife International 2016. Turdus merula. - The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T103888106A87871094. Downloaded on 09 May 2017. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T103888106A87871094.en. Bønløkke, J., Madsen, J. J., Thorup, K., Pedersen, K. T., Bjerrum, M. & Rahbek, C. 2006. Dansk trækfugleatlas [Danish Bird Migration Atlas]. - Rhodos, Humlebæk, pp. 618-624. (in Danish with English Summary) Budinski, I. 2013. Kos, Turdus merula, Blackbird. - In: Kralj, J., Bariši´c, S., Tutiš, V. & ´ Cikovi´c, D. (eds.) Atlas


Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha) was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha), gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha) were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha) were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%), in/on buildings (30.2%) and in trees/shrubs (25.6%). Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20131.x Csörgő, T. & Kiss, P. 1986. Urbanizált feketerigók (Turdus merula) telelési vizsgálata [Study of overwintering urban Blackbirds (Turdus merula)]. - 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Hungarian Ornithological Society, Szeged, Hungary, pp. 312-316. (in Hungarian with English Summary) Csörgő, T. 1991. A magyarországi feketerigók (Turdus merula) külföldi megkerüléseinek értékelése [An analysis of recaptures of Hungarian Blackbirds (Turdus merula)]. - 3rd Scientific Meeting of the Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society Szombathely