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Petr Konvalina, Ivana Capouchová, Zdeněk Stehno and Jan Moudrý
Agronomic characteristics of the spring forms of the wheat landraces (einkorn, emmer, spelt, intermediate bread wheat) grown in organic farming
Organic farmers look to the possibilities of growing neglected crops, such as the spring forms of hulled wheat - einkorn, emmer and spelt - for support in developing the organic farming system. In 2008, 169 landraces from the gene bank at the Crop Research Institute in Prague were tested on certified organic plots. The experiment was aimed at finding suitable varieties for the organic farming system. In summary, our findings show that einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) and emmer wheat [Triticum dicoccum Schrank (Schuebl)] are resistant to powdery mildew and brown rust, spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) is less resistant to these two diseases, and the intermediate forms of bread wheat are very sensitive to such infestation. The varieties evaluated incline to lodging, as they have long and weak stems. Einkorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes and a low thousand grains weight, whereas spelt wheat has long and lax spikes. The level of the harvest index is low. Potentially useful varieties were found during the field experiment and evaluation, and our future efforts will therefore focus on improving resistance to lodging and increasing the productivity of the spike.
Jana Moravčíková, Nikoleta Ujvariová, Iwona Žur, Zdenka Gálová, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Eva Boszorádová and Ildikó Matušíková
Defense components such as chitinases (EC 188.8.131.52) are crucial for plants to cope diseases. Despite of that the pattern and activities of these enzymes in agronomically important Triticale is unexplored. This work is aimed to study chitinase activities in the leaves of plants of early developmental stages in two diploids (Aegilops tauschii Coss., Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrical Host, Ae. triuncialis L., T. araraticum Jakubyz, T. dicoccum Schrank) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L., T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to quantitative and qualitative activity assays using synthetic 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N´,N´´-triacetylchitotrioside and glycolchitin as substrates, respectively. Our results showed that the activities of chitinases with specificity towards short oligomers were variable and genotype dependent. The enzyme activities in the tetra- and hexaploid genotypes were significantly higher than in diplod counterparts. In the gel detection assays were revealed up to four fractions (~20, 30, 42 and 95 kDa) of proteins with the chitinase activity towards long chain polymers. The isoform of ~30 kDa was identified in all analyzed genotypes. Among the seven acidic and three basic chitinase fractions identified, three acidic (ChiA, ChiB, ChiC) and two (ChiH, ChiI) fractions were present in all genotypes. None of the isoforms can be assigned as specific with respect to ploidy.
Jana Moravčíková, Denisa Margetínyová, Zdenka Gálová, Iwona Žur, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Eva Boszorádová and Ildikó Matušíková
The (1,3)-β-D-glucan also referred to as callose is a main component of cell walls of higher plants. Many physiological processes are associated with the changes in callose deposition. Callose is synthesised by the callose synthase complex while its degradation is regulated by the hydrolytic enzymes β-1,3-glucanases. The latter one specifically degrade (1,3)-β-D-glucans. This work is aimed to study β-1,3-glucanase activities in the leaves of plants at two leaf stage in two diploids (Agilops tauschii, Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrica, Ae. triuncialis, T. araraticum, T. dicoccum) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L, T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative β-1,3-glucanase activity assays. Our results showed that the total β-1,3-glucanase activities were variable and genotype dependent. No significant correlation between β-1,3-glucanase activities and ploidy level was observed. The gel activity assays revealed a single fraction of ~52 kDa Glu1 that was found in all genotypes. The Glu1 fraction corresponds to a single or two acidic Glu isoforms in dependence on genotype. However, none of the acidic Glu fractions can be assigned as a specific for di-, tetra- or hexaploid genotypes. A single basic GluF isoform was detected and found as present in all genotypes.
and Triticum aestivum : A two-years evaluation. In Journal of Cereal Science , vol. 58 , no. 1, pp. 123–131. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2013.03.011
BRANDOLINI, A. – HIDALGO, A. – MOSCARITOLO, S. 2008. Chemical composition and pasting properties of einkorn ( TriticummonococcumL. subsp. monococcum ) whole meal flour. In Journal of Cereal Science , vol. 47 , no. 3, pp. 599–609. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2007.07.005
CAI, L. – CHOI, I. – LEE, C.K. – PARK, K.K. – BAIK, B.K. 2014. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour. In Cereal
Irina Konopatskaia, Valeriya Vavilova, Alexandr Blinov and Nikolay P. Goncharov
Amagai, Y., Martinek, P., Watanabe, N., Kuboyama, T. (2014). Microsatellite mapping of genes for branched spike and soft glumes in TriticummonococcumL. Genet. Resour. Crop Ev. , 61 (2), 465–471.
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Antonyuk, M. Z., Prokopyk, D. O., Martynenko, V. S., Ternovska, T. K. (2012). Identification of the genes promoting awnedness in the Triticum aestivum / Aegilops umbellulata introgressive line. Cytol. Genet. , 46 (3), 136
Michaela Havrlentová, Ivana Pšenáková, Alžbeta Žofajová, Ľubomír Rückschloss and Ján Kraic
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ETICHA, F., GRAUSGRUBER, H., SIEBENHANDL-EHN, S., BERGHOFER, E.: Some agronomic and chemical traits of blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheat (Triticum L.). J. Agric. Sci. Technol., B1, 2011, 48-58.
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