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From Double Iron to Double Deca Iron Ultra-Triathlon - A Retrospective Data Analysis from 1985 to 2011

References Ash, G.I., Scott, R.A., Deason, M., Dawson, T.A., Wolde, B., Bekele, Z., Teka, S., & Pitsiladis, Y.P. (2011). No association between ACE gene variation and endurance athlete status in Ethiopians. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 43, 590-597. Bernard, T., Sultana, F., Lepers, R., Hausswirth, C., & Brisswalter, J. (2010). Age-related decline in Olympic triathlon performance: effect of locomotion mode. Experimental Aging Research , 36, 64-78. Binnie, M

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Temporal Activity in Particular Segments and Transitions in The Olympic Triathlon

References Atkinson G, Nevill AM. Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med , 1998; 26: 217-238 Bentley DJ, Cox GR, Green D, Laursen PB. Maximising performance in triathlon: Applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions. J Sci Med Sport , 2007; 12: 234-242 Bentley DJ, Libicz S, Jouglac A, Costec O, Manettac J, Chamarie K, Millet GP. The effects of exercise intensity or drafting during

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Triathlon as a Form of Sports Consumption: Motives for Participation


This article presents triathlon as a modern form of sports consumption. The theoretical part underlines the importance of triathlon events for the development of tourism and the promotion of health and physical activity, whereas the empirical part presents the results of research carried out at the Środa Wielkopolska Triathlon 2018 event. The socio-demographic profile of the participants of the event (N=109) and their motives for participation were determined. The information contained may be of value for those involved in the development of sport and tourism in smaller towns in Poland.

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in Turyzm
Changes in Triathletes’ Performance and Body Composition During a Specific Training Period for a Half-Ironman Race

Introduction Over the last decade, recreational athletes have shown growing interest in long distance events (Malchrowicz-Mośko et al., 2019). Among these types of events, the Half-Ironman distance triathlon (1.9 km swim, 90 km bike and 21.1 km run) is currently very popular among recreational triathletes. As an illustration, Ironman ® 70.3 events (half the Ironman distance) attracted around 120,000 triathletes in 2015. Only 1% of these participants raced in the elite category, while the remaining 99% raced in the age group category, related to the amateur

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Effects of the Performance Level and Race Distance on Pacing in Ultra-Triathlons

Introduction Little is known about pacing in long-distance triathlons such as the Ironman distance triathlon ( i.e . 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running). Pacing in triathlons can be considered within each discipline (i.e. swimming, cycling and running) or how the athlete distributes energy across the disciplines. Elite male and female Ironman triathletes tend to adopt a positive pacing strategy ( i.e . speed decreases throughout a race) in both the running and the cycling splits ( Angehrn et al., 2016 ). Also, or longer triathlon race

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Sensing Athletes: Sensory Dimensions of Recreational Endurance Sports

schnelle Beine. Boxen als Körperpraxis und Konstruktion von Männlichkeit. – Berliner Blätter 70: 21–33. Krahn, Yonca. 2016. Voran, voran: Überlegungen zum kulturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhang von Bewegung und Schreibprozessen in alpinen Landschaften. – Schweizerisches Archiv für Volkskunde 112: 40–56. Krahn, Yonca. 2017. Physische Leistung und Landschaftserleben: Triathlon als Praxis multisensueller Raumerfahrung. – Kulturen der Sinne. Zugänge zur Sensualität der sozialen Welt, edited by Karl Braun, Claus-Marco Dieterich, Thomas Hengartner and Bernhard

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The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

Langzeitbelastung: eine Fallstudie. Schweiz Z Sportmed Sporttrauma , 2003b. 51: 180-187. Knechtle B., Enggist A., Jehle T. Energy turnover at the Race across America (RAAM) - a case report. Int J Sports Med , 2005. 26: 499-503. Knechtle B., Kohler G. Running 338 kilometres within five days has no effect on body mass and body fat but reduces skeletal muscle mass - the Isarrun 2006. J Sports Sci Med , 2007. 6: 401-407. Knechtle B., Duff B., Amtmann G., Kohler G. An ultra-triathlon leads to a decrease

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Predicting Elite Triathlon Performance: A Comparison of Multiple Regressions and Artificial Neural Networks

. European Journal of Sport Science, 2(2), 1-10. Fröhlich, M., Klein, M., Pieter, A., Emrich, E., & Gießling, J. (2008). Consequences of the Three Disciplines on the Overall Result in Olympic-distance Triathlon. International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering, 2(4), 204-210. Gilinsky, N., Hawkins, K. R., Tokar, T. N., & Cooper, J. A. (2014). Predictive variables for half-Ironman triathlon performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17(3), 300-305.

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Age and Gender Differences in Performance at Cross Triathlon World Championships

References 1. Etter F., Knechtle B., Bukowski A., Rüst C.A., Rosemann T., Lepers R. (2013). Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance. Journal of Sports Sciences 31, 9, 996-1006. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2012.760747. 2. Knechtle B., Knechtle P., Lepers R. (2011). Participation and performance trends in ultra-triathlons from 1985 to 2009. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 21, e82-e90. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01160.x. 3. Knechtle B., Rüst C.A., Rosemann T., Lepers

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Leukocyte Populations are Associated with Heart Rate Variability After a Triathlon

; Plews et al., 2013 ), we obtain information regarding the dominant stimulus; i.e., in appropriate adaptation to workloads parasympathetic activity dominates; conversely, in overall maladaptive situations, a predominance of sympathetic activity occurs ( Bricout et al., 2010 ; Mazon et al., 2013 ; Plews et al., 2013 ). In this study, the effects of competition and recovery during and after a triathlon on leukocytes and heart rate variability, and the correlation between them were examined. Material and Methods Subjects Twelve male amateur triathletes

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