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Beds and Stryczowice Beds (Middle Buntsandstein) of the Northeastern Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). [In:] Aspects of fluvial sedimentation in the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein of Europe. (Mader D., Editor), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 4: 351–396. Mader D., Rdzanek K., 1985. Sandy braidplain deposition with minor pedogenesis in the labyrinthodontidae beds (middle buntsandstein) of the northeastern holy cross mountains (Poland). [In:] Aspects of fluvial sedimentation in the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein of Europe. (Mader D., Editor), Springer-Verlag Berlin


The aim of the study was to compare the properties of soils developed from the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein sediments in the north-western part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). These are deposits of continental genesis and unique features such as red beds. Two representative soil pedons - the Bartków profile (pBK) developed from clay and the Góra Czerwona profile (pGC) developed from sandstone were selected for detailed analyzes. The morphology of profiles, their micromorphological features, mineralogical composition, and physico-chemical properties were examined. Most of the properties of the soils are a consequence of the original parent rock lithology. A specific feature of the morphology of the soils are the presence of red color (about 10R by the Munsell color scale) related to the presence of hematite. As shown by the XRD data, hematite is not the product of the current soil-forming processes, but it is a lithogenic component, which was inherited from the parent rock. Under the influence of climatic factors primary rock structure has been transformed into a new pedogenic one. Soils developed from clays have a characteristic angular blocky structure. Micromorphological analysis showed that an important role in the formation of soil structure involves geogenic susceptibility of Triassic clays to specific cuboid disintegration. This is indicated by the pore system of planes as an orthogonal nets visible in thin section. The soils developed from sandstone have a weak (unstable) subangular blocky structure. The main reason is the insufficient dispersion of the clay-ferruginous fraction from the sandstone matrix. Microscopic observations indicate that fine factions occurs as loose microaggregates, which results in a feature that smaller rock fragments and individual quartz grains are not bonded into soil aggregates. The studied soils are characterized by specific physical-chemical properties. Some of them strongly depend on the mineralogical properties of the soil substrate. Strong acidity (pH 3-4) and a very low content of base cations (below 1.0 cmol(+) kg-1) are due to a lack of carbonate minerals in sandstones and weak weathering of aluminium silicate. High exchangeable Al content in clay (16.5 cmol(+) kg-1) should be related to the geochemical properties of the red bed-type rocks such as the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein deposits. Soils developed from the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein clays have a sequence of genetic horizons: Ap, Bw, Bw/C, C and fulfill the criteria assigned to dystrophic typical brown soils (BDt) in the Polish Soil Classification (PSC 2011), whereas in the WRB they were classified as Endoeutric Chromic Cambisols (Loamic). Soils developed from the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein red sandstone can be classified as dystrophic humus brown soil (BDpr) in the PSC (2011). Within the WRB classification that soil can be assigned to Epidystric Chromic Endoleptic Cambisols.


The aim of the investigation was to define the extend of pedogenethic processes by analysis of colour changes in groundmass of each genetic horizon. The object of the research were Chromic soils developed from red deposits of Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) in the Holy Cross Mountains. Micromorphological studies were made with polarization microscopes Olympus BX- 41 and Olympus SZX-10. Image analysis was conducted with software program AxioVision 4.5 with Auto Measure module. The application of advanced methods of digital data analysis allowed for the quantitative compilation of measurement figures in thin sections. On the basis of micromorphometrical data designated objective numerical indicators, which allowed comparison groundmass color between each genetic horizon. Statistical analysis by ANOVA test confirm that groundmass color measured in RGB scale in investigated horizons are almost the same. Obtained results evidence that characteristic red color of soil substrate in analyzed soils developed from Lower Triassic rocks originated from the bedrock color. This fact indicates low extent of the pedogenic processes.

., Penižek V., 2011. Problems in correlation of Czech National soil classification and World Reference Base 2006. Geoderma 167/168: 54–60. Zagórski Z., Kisiel M., Kuśmierz A., 2015. Selected properties and systematic position of soils developed from red sandstones and clays of the lower Triassic Buntsandstein in the NW part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Soil Science Annual 66(3): 139–153. Zgłobicki W., Baran-Zgłobicka B., Gawrysiak L., Telecka M., 2015. The impact of permanent gullies on present-day land use and agriculture in loess areas (E. Poland). Catena 126

summary). Szewczyk, J. & Gientka, D., 2009. Terrestrial heat flow density in Poland: a new approach. Geological Quarterly 53, 125-140. Szyperko-Teller, A., 1997. Trias dolny (pstry piaskowiec). Sedymentacja, paleogeografia i paleotektonika [Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein). Sedimentation, palaeogeography and palaeotectonics]. [In:] S. Marek & M. Pajchlowa (Eds): Epikontynentalny perm i mezozoik w Polsce [Epicontinental Permian and Mesozoic in Poland]. Prace Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego 153, 121-132 (in Polish). Tenzer, H., 2001. Development of Hot Dry Rock

). Tronkov D. 1993: Triassic carbonate buildups in West Bulgaria. C. R. Acad. bulg. Sci. 46, 11, 77–80. Tronkov D. 1995: Triassic System. In: Haydutov I. (Ed.): Explanation notes to the geological map of Bulgaria on scale 1:100,000, Berkovitca map sheet. Avers , Sofia, 44–59 (in Bulgarian). Tronkov D. & Ajdanlijsky G. 1998a: The Profile of the Petrohan Terrigenous Group (PTG - Lower Triassic, Buntsandstein facial type) between Opletnja and Sfrazen, NW Bulgaria. Hall. Jb. Geowiss. Reihe B, Beiheft 5, 175–176. Tronkov D. & Ajdanlijsky G. 1998b: Sequence Stratigraphy of

: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution. In: Morad S. (Ed.): Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones: Distribution Patterns and Geochemical Evolution. Special Publication 26 of the IAS , University Press , Cambridge, 1–26. Morad S., Márfil R. & Pena J. 1989: Diagenetic K-feldspar pseudo-morphs in the Triassic Buntsandstein sandstones of the Iberian Range, Spain. Sedimentology 36, 635–650. Morad S., Ketzer J.M. & De Ros L.F. 2000: Spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations in siliciclastic rocks: Implications for mass transfer in sedimentary basins

. & MACHALSKA K. 1994. Arthropod tracks, “Diplichnites” triassicus (Linck, 1843), from the Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) fluvial deposits of the Holy Cross Mts, Central Poland. Acta Geol. Pol., 44(3-4): 267-275. MADER D. 1990. Palaeoecology of the Flora in Buntsandstein and Keuper in the Triassic of Middle Europe. Volume 2. Keuper and Index. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York. MADER D. 1995. Taphonomy, sedimentology and genesis of plant fossil deposit types in Lettenkohle (Lower Keuper) and Schilfsandstein (Middle Keuper) in Lower Franconia (Germany). Peter Lang