Beller, Manfred and Joep Leerssen, eds. 2007. Imagology. The Cultural Construction and Literary Representation of National Characters. A Critical Survey. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Cs. Lingvay, Klára. 2011. Paget, John. Magyarország és Erdély. Napló. [Hungary and Transylvania. A Journal.] Cluj-Napoca: Kriterion.
Hering, George Edward. 1838. Sketches on the Danube, in Hungary, and Transylvania. London: Thomas McLean.
Kósa, László, ed. 1999. A Companion to Hungarian Studies. Budapest: Akadémiai
The first part of the study debates the role and the status of philosophy in the Hungarian culture in Transylvania, trying to explain why philosophy has not become an organic part of the Transylvanian culture as a whole. There are presented a few experimental and theoretical arguments, especially the theory of the so-called ‘short philosophical tradition’. The second part the paper seeks to analyse the impact of the ‘short philosophical tradition’ on the current philosophy life in Transylvania, bringing an overview of the institutional structure of Hungarian philosophy in Transylvania.
The aim of the present paper is to present and critically discuss the potentialities and limits of using official data (collected and reported by state-institutions) in order to shed light on consequences of uneven development and measure area deprivation in present-day Romania. Our argumentation is based on a quantitative inquiry at the level of rural communes and small-towns from three counties located in the historical region of Transylvania. It presents the reasons for choosing certain statistical indicators, the construction of composite indexes and the profiles of localities according to their values. We explore the statistical correlations between our indexes and the poverty rates measured for 2002 (CASPIS, 2004), as well as the Local Human Development Index proposed by Sandu (2011) and revised by the World Bank (2014). Unlike other poverty-mapping inquiries, our goal was not to identify compact, segregated and severely impoverished settlements, but to measure the extent of material deprivation at the level of the entire administrative unit. In this way, we refrained from seeing poverty as the problem of a socially (and sometimes spatially) marginalized settlement, and instead defined poverty as a problem of the entire local community, that should be addressed by the local community as a whole. Our data reveals that, after controlling for poverty and local resources, the share of the Roma ethnic minority is a strong statistical predictor of registered unemployment, however, it does not correlate with the frequency of granting social assistance benefits.
The purpose of the present paper is to explore the dynamics of trilingual Internet use and its relation to minority language identity and acculturation among young Swedish speakers in Finland (N = 201) and Hungarian speakers in Transylvania (N = 388). Typically, a feature of linguistic minorities, trilingualism, provides speakers with the competence to move outside their original cultural realm, a feature that is rewarding at an individual level but may form a threat to the minority language culture. The results indicate in both contexts an extensive use of English alongside the minority language and a restricted amount of use of the majority language on the Internet. Majority language and English-language Internet use are strongly related to acculturation towards majority language speakers and English speakers in both contexts. Majority-language Internet use is significantly and negatively associated with minority language identity among participants in Transylvania but not among participants in Finland. Most interestingly, however, English-language Internet use is significantly and negatively related to minority language identity in both contexts. The findings and their theoretical implications are discussed.
Despite the development of the iconographic programs, the frescoes painted by the Grecu brothers remind us not only of the large ensembles beyond the Carpathians in Walachia and Moldova but also other Transylvanian decorations. These frescoes express not only the spirit of the time or the mentality of the community to which they belonged, but they also represented an opportunity to show the painters’ originality and personality, their need for personal affirmation and artistic individuality, connected to a new sensitivity of a given historical context. The representation of the inhabiting nations in Transylvania in the Passion’s Cycle highlights the disadvantaged status of the Romanian people who were oppressed by the privileged nations: by the Habsburg military force, the inequitable judgement of Saxons and the torments inflicted by Hungarians through their policies. All of these recreate mutatis mutandis the dramatic setting in which Christ was crucified.
Transylvania has always been a space of multiculturalism, which is reflected in the fact that the Hungarian regional standard contains more Romanian and German elements than the central standard. And that is not only peculiar to the present state of the language, but it is a historical phenomenon. During the process of editing the Historical Dictionary of the Hungarian Language in Transylvania, Attila Szabó T. and his co-workers realized that the language material gathered from Transylvanian archives contains a number of Hungarian words of Romanian origin that the literature has no knowledge of. Thus came the idea of a smaller dictionary which would present the Romanian loan words of Hungarian spoken in Transylvania in the period of the 16th–19th centuries. By the mid-1980s, the editorial work was finalized; however, it has never been published – the material is kept at the Department of Hungarian and General Linguistics, Babeş–Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. In my paper, I will attempt to present the words of Romanian origin listed in the Historical Dictionary of the Hungarian Language in Transylvania, which the general literature of loan words has no knowledge of in the context of crossing borders, in the sense that neighbouring languages always have a huge impact on each other even if they are completely different genetically.
Ramona Iancu, Letiţia Oprean, Diana Stegăruş, Ovidiu Tiţa, Adrian Boicean and Ecaterina Lengyel
Water pollution has become a worldwide problem and its influence over the health of human populations grows every day. This study was carried out to determinate the rate level of pollution of the Cibin River (Transylvania, Romania) via physical-chemical and microbiological tests. Water samples were measured at six different locations along the Cibin River for a period of 12 months. Analysis methods used to determine physical-chemical quality indices for water were as follows: O2 - ISO 5814/99, pH - SR ISO 10523-97, PO4- KIT Merck, SO4- - PS/LE 17, conductivity - Sonda, NH4+ - SR ISO 7150-1/2001, NO3- - SR ISO 7890/2000, NO2- - SR EN 26777 - ISO 6777/2002, chlorides - SR ISO 9297/2001, CCOCr - SR ISO 6060/96, CBO5 - SR ISO 5815/95, suspended solids - STAS 6953/81, residues - STAS 9187/95. The water samples were analyzed also from a sanitary and public health point of view, for example: total number of mesophilic bacteria, total number of yeasts and moulds, total coliforms, total fecal coliforms, Enterococcus and Escherichia coli, according to current Romanian legislation and normatives (Order 1146/2002). The significant results place the river in the first (sampling stations 1, 2 and 3) and second (sampling stations 4, 5 and 6) water Quality Class. Due to the fact that the upper dam reservoir at Gura Râului is the main source of drinking water for Sibiu, it is certain that this water presents optimal characteristics for human consumption and is thus declared to be one of the healthiest water sources in Romania.
://www.formula-as.ro/2017/1272/societate-37/printul-charles-de-romania-pe-urmele-stramosilorsai-romani-din-ardeal-22479 [Accessed 26.09.2018].
Ruscior, Cosmin. n.d. “Viscri, adevărata faţă a satului ce l-a fermecat pe prinţul Charles” in RFI România, https://www.rfi.ro/galerie-foto/viscri-adevarata-fata-satului-ce-l-fermecat-printul-charles [Accessed 26.09.2018].
Şelaru, Cristi. 2018. “Ȋncă o dovadă de iubire: Prinţul Charles a vizitat expoziţia ‘Transylvania Florilegium’, organizată de ICR la Londra” in Stiripesurse.ro, 25 May, https://www.stiripesurse.ro/inca-o-dovada-deiubire-printul-charles-a-vizitat-expozitia-transylvania
My study aims to scrutinize the extent to which bilingualism and diglossia influence Transylvanian translators’ texts when the target language is Hungarian. While studying the narrower and wider interpretations of these linguistic phenomena, we may find that all the conditions are given that are required for us to say: Transylvanian translators’ bilingualism and diglossia may be considered as facts, and socio-lingual effects become tangible in various translations.