Table 4 . The Mann-Whitney U test of the difference value between two measurement times (pre-follow up) revealed significant between-group differences for anger-out and for specific table tennis anger (measure: general trait). Discussion The present study supports earlier findings on the effectiveness of cognitive behavior training on anger reduction ( Del Vecchio and O’Leary, 2004 ) and provides significant information about the efficacy of such training in the field of racquet sports. The results indicate that the trainingprogram was effective for table tennis
References Ackum, S. (1991), "Youth Unemployment, Labour Market Programs and Subsequent Earnings." Scandinavian Journal of Economics , 93, (4), pp. 531-543. Amemiya, T. (1985), Advanced Econometrics . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Angrist, J., Krueger, A. B. (1999), "Empirical Strategies in Labor Economics," in Ashenfelter, O., Card, D., ed., Handbook of Labor Economics . Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 1277-1366. Ashenfelter, O. (1978), "Estimating the Effect of TrainingPrograms on Earnings." Review of Economics and Statistics , 6, (1), pp. 47
Evaluation of the Effects of a Training Programme for Patients with Prolonged Fatigue on Physiological Parameters and Fatigue Complaints
Objectives: Complaints of prolonged fatigue are considered as a major health problem, as it can affect daily functioning and may lead to work disability. To increase knowledge about the effectiveness of interventions focussing on fatigued patients, a study was designed to evaluate an established training programme for patients with prolonged fatigue. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients who reported fatigue to be one of their major health complaints and who were suffering from functional impairments attended a training programme of six weeks, three times a week. The training consisted mainly of physical endurance training, relaxation therapy and breathing exercises in rest. At baseline, time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration rate measurements were recorded during rest and during recovery after bicycle exercise. Furthermore, fatigue complaints were assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). These measurements were repeated at three weeks and six weeks from baseline. Results: After three weeks, HRV increased significantly in rest — SDNN, i.e. standard deviation of normal beat-to-beat intervals (p = 0.02), very low frequency (p = 0.04) and low frequency (p = 0.04) — and showed a positive trend in the remaining HRV components. No significant HRV changes during recovery were found. Respiration rate decreased significantly after six weeks during rest (from 11.8, SD = 4.65 to 8.1, SD = 2.57 bXmin-1) and during recovery (from 15.1, SD = 4.90 to 10.4, SD = 2.97 bXmin-1). In all patients, CIS scores decreased after six weeks training (from 106, SD = 13.3 to 78, SD = 21.8, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that a six-week training programme has a beneficial effect on physiological and subjective parameters in patients with severe complaints of fatigue.
The first and most crucial step towards developing a sustainable curriculum for instructors teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) is a needs analysis. Therefore, the main aim of conducting this study was to investigate the in-service needs of language instructors and content specialists teaching ESAP and to spot the differences between the needs of these two groups in order to provide them with systematic treatments in ESAP teacher training programs. This mixed method study was designed on a qualitative-quantitative survey basis using a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and an observation checklist. The analysis of the data collected from 50 content specialists and 50 language instructors completing the questionnaires reveals that there is a significant difference between the in-service needs of these two groups, that is, language instructors desire more to be trained in an in-service ESAP teaching training program in terms of professional, procedural and personal needs. Furthermore, the results of the data obtained from the semi-structured interview and the observation of 20 of the above-mentioned instructors (i.e., 10 content specialists and 10 language instructors) indicate that language instructors have more difficulty selecting suitable materials, suffer more from low income, attitudinal difficulties and backwash effect compared to their counterparts teaching ESAP courses. It can be inferred that the results of the present study can sufficiently help the researchers to embark on an in-service teacher training program both for ESAP content specialists and language instructors based on their specific needs in the ESAP context.
Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.
Material and methods: three football teams were recruited for this randomised controlled trial. They played in the first and second divisions in Spain. Players were randomised within clubs either to the intervention (eccentric exercises, n = 22) or control (control exercises, n = 21) groups, and randomisation was stratified according to previous history of thigh strains. The eccentric programme was divided into 3 phases, and each phase was composed of 7 weeks. Compliance level and all injuries were recorded throughout the season as well as training and game exposure times. Muscle strength and power of the lower extremities and flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back were measured before and after the intervention.
Results: the risk for sustaining a hamstring strain (RSHS) was reduced by 81%. However, differences were not significant due to the low number of subjects (relative risk 0.19; 95% coefficient interval 0.02–1.50). The strength of the hamstrings decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), whereas sprint time was improved only in the intervention group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: the present findings suggest that a simple program of eccentric exercise could reduce RSHS.
: Basic concepts, problems, and its implementation]. Jakarta: PT Indeks. Pontes-Pedrajas, A., & Varo-Martínez, M. (2014). Educative experience of the use of concept mapping in science and environmental teacher trainingprogrammes. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability , 16 (1), 102–116. Poom-Valickis, K., Saarits, I., Sikka, H., Talts, L., & Veisson, M. (2013). Professional education of teachers’ problems and perspectives. The Estonian Case. Journal of Teacher Education and Training , 3 , 15–23. Priatna, N., & Sukamto, T. (2013). Pengembangan profesi guru
References AAKVIK, A. and DAHL, S. (2006), ‘Transitions to Employment from Labour Market Enterprises in Norway’, International Journal of Social Welfare , 15 (2), pp. 121-30. ALBRECHT, J., BERG, G. J. van den and VROMAN, S. (2005), ‘The Knowledge Lift: The Swedish Adult Education Program that Aimed to Eliminate Low Worker Skill Levels’, IZA Discussion Paper 1503, Bonn. ARELLANO, F. A. (2005), ‘Do TrainingProgrammes Get the Unemployed Back to Work? A Look at the Spanish Experience’, Working Paper , 05-25, Economics Series 15, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years), were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls), and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls); and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program). Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p< 0.05) in vertical and horizontal jumps, a 1 kg and 3 kg medicine ball throw, a 20 m sprint and VO2max, for both boys and girls. No significant changes were observed related to gender in training-induced strength (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29) and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28) capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.
, 2010 ). However, controversy exists in the literature regarding the influence of balance training on athletes’ performance and balance improvement, as well as injury prevention. Literature search The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. There is no general consensus in the literature regarding what to call trainingprograms and exercise, therefore, we searched for various terms of trainingprogrammes. Based on a Boolean search strategy, consistent with previous meta-analyses on
’s role as an antecedent of training transfer and motivation to learn in trainingprograms. Acta Universitatis Danubius, 2: 18-38. Azman, I., Lucy, L. C. S., Mohd Na’eim, A., Noor Faizzah, D., & Ali, B. 2009a. Relationship between supervisor’s role and job performance in the workplace trainingprogram. Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi: Economic Sciences Series, LVI, 237-250. Azman, I., Nurul Afiqah, F., Muhammad Madi, A., & Nurul Huda, M. 2013. A study of the correlation between training administration and training motivation. Management