Lakkana Rerksuppaphol and Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol
weight and activity goals among diabetes prevention program lifestyle participants. Obes Res. 2004; 12:1426-34.
4. Kim DD, Sanchez FA, Boric MP, Duran WN. Mechanisms of acupuncture and herbal medicine in hypertension. Asian Biomed. 2008; 2:257-4.
5. Niimi H, Yamakawa T. Asian traditionalmedicine and microcirculatory science: an introduction. In: Niimi H, Xiu R-J, Sawada T, Zheng C, eds. Microcirculatory Approach to Asian TraditionalMedicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sciences, 1996. p. 3-10.
6. Mok MS, Parker LN, Voina S
Evans’ pharmacognosy. Elsevier Health Sciences.
5. National policy on traditionalmedicine and regulation of herbal medicines: Report of a WHO global survey. (2005). World Health Organization, Geneva. Available to: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241593237.pdf
6. Li WF, Jiang JG & Chen J. (2008). Chinese medicine and its modernization demands. Arch. Med. Res. 39(2), 246-251.
7. Harrison RA, Holt D, Pattison DJ & Elton PJ. (2004). Who and how many people are taking herbal supplements? A survey of 21923 adults
Alternatives and Are studies 16, No. 1, 139 ̵ 156.
SUGISHITA, K. (2009): “TraditionalMedicine, Biomedicine and Christianity in Modern Zambia”. In: Africa. International African Institute 79, No. 3, 435-454.
Central Statistical Office. 2009. Living Conditions, Poverty in Zambia 1991 – 2006 . Lusaka: CSO.
Central Statistical Office. 1994. The Social Dimensions of Adjustment Priority Survey I . Lusaka: CSO.
International Labour Office. 2008. Investigation Forced Labour and Trafficking in Zambia . Lusaka: International Labour Office
1. Miraldi E, Ferri S, Mostaghimi V. Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditionalmedicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran). J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75:77-87.
2. Moshiri M. Ershad-Al-Zeraat. Tehran Publication. Iran 1500:63-68.
3. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaghmour RMR, Faidi YR, Salem K, Al-Nuri MA. Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine inthe Palestinian area. J Ethnopharmacol 1998; 60:265-271.
4. Sokmen A, Jones BM, Erturk M. The in vitro antibacterial activity of
1. IUCN. Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. IUCN, Gland, 1993.
2. WHO. WHO TraditionalMedicine Strategy 2002-2005. Geneva 2002. http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/trm_strat_eng.
3. Gilani AH, Atta-ur-Rahman. Trends in ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100:43-49.
4. Verpoorte R, Choi YH, Kim HK. Ethnopharmacology and systems biology: A perfect holistic match. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100:53-56.
5. Houghton PJ. The role of plants in
The present work focuses on an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Belezma National Park (BNP), which is located in Batna city. It was conducted to precise on the medicinal plants in the park and gathers all the information on the therapeutic practice used by the local inhabitants of the study area. Using 300 questionnaire cards, ethnobotanical surveys of BNP were conducted during two campaigns (2017 and 2018). The obtained results allowed us to identify 50 medicinal plants used by the population of the region, which are divided into 27 families and 46genus.
The obtained results show both leaves and stems are mostly used for diseases’ treatment in the form of a decoction with a rate of 42.34%. For the treated diseases, the digestive disorders occupy the first place with a rate of 34.01%, followed by uro-genital diseases with a rate of 17.56%, 11.20% for respiratory diseases, 11.84% for orthopedic diseases and 6.23% for cardiovascular.
The founded results could be a database for research on phytochemistry and pharmacology for the national medicinal flora and the population of the BNP region. Also, they constitute a very valuable source of information.
Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory.
Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 μg mL-1. However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity.
Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli
Introduction: Recently, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in healthcare considerations.
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Cinnamomum verum, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Candida albicans and some pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: The antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) against different microbial strains was evaluated using the disk diffusion method as well as determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and bactericidal concentration (MBC). For Candida albicans, the MFC of the plant oils was determined using a macro broth dilution assay. A range of concentrations (50 to 0.2 mg/ml) were prepared in Mueller Hinton Broth medium in flasks. Tween 80 (0.01% v/v) was included to enhance oil solubility. Each flask was inoculated with 108 CFU/ml of C. albicans. The flasks were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. From each flask 13 μl of culture was inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton Agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The plates were observed and the MFC was determined as the lowest concentration of plant oil completely inhibiting the growth of C. albicans.
Results: The obtained results showed that all bacteria and yeasts tested were sensitive to cinnamon essential oil with an inhibition zone ranging from 22 to 39.33 mm and a MIC ranging from 0.20 mg/ml to 1.56 mg/ml. At low concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.13 mg/ml, this essential oil has shown the most important bactericidal effect. Eucalyptus essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus with a diameter of 21.33±1.15 mm. The antibacterial effect of mint indicates that the most sensitive bacterium is A. boumannii. However, S. enteritidis, C. albicans, K. pneumoni and P. aeruginosa are resistant germs whose inhibition diameter varies from 7.33±1.15 mm to 11.33±1.15 mm. Lavender EO has an inhibitory effect against S. aureus (20.67±1.15 mm) and an intermediate effect against Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis.
Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of essential oils, especially those of cinnamon against the strains studied, supports their potential use as a remedy against infectious microbial diseases.
Association Européenne des Spécialités Pharmaceutiques Grand Public (AESGP). Economic and Legal Framework for Non-Prescription Medicines. 15 th ed. Brussels: AESGP; 2009.
World Health Organization (WHO). National policy on traditionalmedicine and regulation of herbal medicines report of a WHO global survey. Geneva: WHO; 2005.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residue. Geneva: WHO