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Rutting and Fatigue are taken as main premature failures among all distresses, as these distresses have wide effect on performance of pavement. Sudden variation of heavy axle loaded vehicles, improper mix design and traditional design methodologies used in pavement design industries are major factors behind these failures. For proper performance and good serviceability, these premature distresses should be resisted. Thus, there is a need of using a Mechanistic based design methodology like KENPAVE software, so that traditional design errors should be overcome. KENLAYER is a part of KENPAVE software. KENLYER software tool is utilized to calculated accurately stresses and strains in asphaltic pavement that are ultimately used in calculating allowance for rutting and fatigue failure utilizing Asphalt Institute design models or formulas. Resistance to Rutting failure is checked by calculating vertical compressive stress at the top of soil sub-grade layer, while resistance to fatigue failure is checked by calculating horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphaltic layer using KENLAYER software tool. Thus, the object of this research study is to analyze a flexible pavement with respect to rutting and fatigue distresses using KENLAYER software tool. For achieving that objective NHA (N-55) section of road in Sehwan Pakistan was taken as a reference pavement. Pavement was analyzed by altering the thicknesses of bituminous courses by ± 25 percent. From that we obtained total 20 cross-sections to be analyzed using KENLAYER software in terms of Rutting and Fatigue premature failures.


The paper presents general guidelines for designing affective multi-agent systems (affective MASs). The guidelines aim at extending the existing agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) methodologies to enable them to design affective MASs. The reason why affective mechanisms need specific attention during the design is the fact that the way how both rational tasks and interactions are done differ based on the affective state of the agents. Thus, the paper extends the traditional design approaches with the design of affective mechanisms and includes them in the design of the system as a whole.


Evidence-based policy making and economic decision making rely on accurate business information on a national level and increasingly also on smaller regions and business classes. In general, traditional design-based methods suffer from low accuracy in the case of very small sample sizes in certain subgroups, whereas model-based methods, such as small area techniques, heavily rely on strong statistical models.

In small area applications in business statistics, two major issues may occur. First, in many countries business registers do not deliver strong auxiliary information for adequate model building. Second, sampling designs in business surveys are generally nonignorable and contain a large variation of survey weights.

The present study focuses on the performance of small area point and accuracy estimates of business statistics under different sampling designs. Different strategies of including sampling design information in the models are discussed. A design-based Monte Carlo simulation study unveils the impact of the variability of design weights and different levels of aggregation on model- versus design-based estimation methods. This study is based on a close to reality data set generated from Italian business data.


The emergence of led luminaries in street lighting has modified traditional design guidelines. The highest led energy efficiency allows keeping suitable lighting levels with less installed power. Thus, the present design line of a street lighting installation is closely related to the technological change: kind of led to be used, suitable lens, efficacy relationship regarding high pressure sodium, light colour temperature, spectrum. The “impact” associated to with led conversion relegates main aspects of street designs: effect of road reflective properties and installation depreciation. The wear produced by traffic, as well as the environmental conditions gradually modifies the road reflection matrix. In a street lighting installation, this change alters the luminance arrangement on the road together with the perception conditions. This phenomenon is a determining factor within the global concept of depreciation affecting lighting systems in general and also street lighting installations designed by the Luminance Technique. In the present work changes, due to use, in the shape of street reflection matrices of Argentinean highways are analyzed. The analyzed r-tables were obtained through “in-situ” measurements, with road reflectometer. A first group corresponds to the initial conditions of macro textured roads which were measured in the period 2001/2003. The second studied set contains r-tables of the same type, and according to its use the surfaces can be considered in steady state, assessed between 2005 and 2009. The study provides information about the shape of matrixes and its alteration, specularity and scale factor, relating such parameters with the possible effects on the resulting lighting.

wastewater , (1998). (20th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1325). [32] Ayres, R.M. Mara, D.D. (1996). Analysis of Wastewater for Use in Agriculture: A Laboratory Manual of Parasitoligical and Bacteriological Techniques . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization [33] Banda, C.G. (2003). Modern Design of Waste Stabilization Ponds in Warm Climates: Comparison with Traditional Design Methods . MSc . thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK [34] Banda, C.G. Sleigh, P.A. Mara, D.D. (2005). Escherichia coli removal in waste stabilization

and consolidate urgent research needs on specific focus topics. More than 100 participants shared their insights during the sessions. The workshop days were designed after the seven key principles of a World Café according to Brown and Isaacs (2007) . The traditional design was slightly adapted to ensure that the participants from various backgrounds could gather information on the different aspects of sustainable land use management. One adaptation was that the first day started with presentations from key speakers on sustainable soil and land use as well as a

and pipe- lines. A supplement to the map includes foreign trade balance sheet and data concerning imports of raw materials, fuels and basic materials, as well as exports of industrial goods according to regions. Signs used in the map are of traditional design. Somewhat less typical, though simple, appear diagrams illustrating how big particular economic regions are and what the consumption of energy is. Concentric position of ring 206 G A B R I E L B O N A T O W S K I A N D B O G D A N H O R O D Y S K l segments shows their mutual relations. All segments

negativen Zusammenhang zwischen Dichte und Getöteten je Einwohner sowohl insgesamt als auch für Fußgänger unter Kontrolle der Exposition (Fußgänger-Verkehrsleistung). Dumbaugh und Rae (2009) untersuchten Unfallzahlen für die Stadt San Antonio (USA) kleinräumlich auf der Quartiersebene. Sie fanden, dass urbane Strukturen (in den USA: „traditional design“) mit hoher Dichte, Fußgängerfreundlichkeit und nahräumlichem Einzelhandel mit weniger Unfällen und Verletzten verbunden sind. Sie führten dies auf niedrigere Geschwindigkeiten und geringere Pkw-Fahrleistungen zurück

‘traditional neighbourhood design’ or ‘neo-traditional design’, making references to the past and valuing the nostalgic elements and the romantic character of old, small towns (e.g. picket fences, front porches, etc.; Ganapati 2008 : 387; Vick & Perkins 2013 ). ‘Adherents to NU claim to pay attention to region-specific vernacular architectural styles and are especially inspired by the small towns of the 1920s (…). Local history is considered to be present in town layouts (…), the colours used for buildings, landscape and environmental design, and place and street names

, Prague, Czech Republic 2Department of Information Engineering, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic *E-mail: 138 AGRICULTURA TROPICA ET SUBTROPICA VOL. 46 (4) 2013 The paper examines the potential usefulness of hand held devices such as mobile phones and tabs in education sector while demonstrating the need to overhaul the data sharing and content delivery techniques for ubiquitous computing. Traditionally designed educational systems are unable to cater the on site real access of data for