This paper reports on an ongoing project between members of the computer science and special education departments of Bradley University and Murray State University, detailing the robotic platforms developed and investigated as a potential tool to improve social interactions among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Development of a fourth generation robotic agent is described, which uses economically available robotic platforms (Lego NXT) as Socially Assistive Robotics (SAR), combined with direct instruction pedagogy and social scripts to support an alternative educational approach to teaching social behavior. Specifically, in this fourth generation, changes to the physical design of the robots were made to improve the maintainability, reliability, maneuverability, and aesthetics of the robots. The software architecture was designed for modularity, configurability, and reusability of the software.
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experienced surgeons. 35 It is mostly used as an alternative method or just as an aid for the surgery. According to Burkey et al ., the reliability of the gamma probe is only 66% and therefore is not a consistently reliable tool for routine use. 51 Robotic parathyroidectomy Robotic-assisted parathyroidectomy is a modern technique and it represents the new generation in the evolution of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy techniques. 52 The beginnings of telerobotic surgical technology go back to the early 21 st century when a new established idea of robotic