Katarzyna Leszczyńska, Krzysztof Preis, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Maciej Słodki, Dennis Wood, Stuart Weiner, Ulli Gembruch, Giusseppe Rizzo, Reuven Achiron, Jay D Pruetz, Mark Sklansky, Bettina Cuneo, Birgit Arabin, Isaac Blickstein and
for the evaluation of heart failure in the fetus with or without hydrops. Pediatr Cardiol. 2004;25(3):274–286
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Zvonka Rener-Primec, Vasilij Matko Cerar, Vita Dolžan, Lili Steblovnik, Miha Lučovnik and Živa Novak Antolič
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Gianluca Rigatelli, Marco Zuin, Alan Fong, Truyen TTT Tai and Thach Nguyen
Background and Objective
Ostial LM stenting potentially induces turbulence in the aortic wall near the LM ostium, which might be correlated with aorta dilation and dissection. We investigated through a computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD), the presence and potential consequences of flow turbulences both in the ascending aorta and arch after a stenting left main (LM) mid shaft or distal disease.
The model of the ascending aorta and left coronary artery was reconstructed reviewing both angiographic and echocardiographic measurements of 80 consecutive patients (43 males, mean age 75.1 ± 6.2 years) with significant LM mid shaft or distal disease treated in our institution. For stent simulation, a third-generation everolimus-eluting stent was reconstructed. Two stenting procedures (lesion 1:1 or ostial coverage) were investigated.
The net area averaged WSS of the model resulted higher when the stent covered the lesion 1:1 compared to the ostial coverage (3.68 vs. 2.06 Pa, P=0.01 and 3.97 vs. 1.98 Pa, P < 0.001, respectively). LM ostial coverage generates more turbulences in the LM itself, in the aortic wall at ostium level, and at the sino-tubular junction compared with the stenting of the lesion 1:1. Conversely, in the ascending aorta, the WSS appears lower when stenting the lesion 1:1.
Extending the stent coverage up to the ostium, when the ostial region is not diseased, might induce unfavorable alterations of flow; not only both at the level of the LM lesion and ostium sites, but also in the ascending aorta and aortic arch, potentially predisposing the aortic wall to long-term damage.
-BTBP (ttc conformer) in the unit cell of 1. Fig. 4. The packing of the molecules of CyMe4-BTBP (ttt conformer) and THF in the unit cell of 2. The disorder of molecules is omitted for clarity. azinylpyridine N-donor ligands. Chem. Rev., 113(2), 1199-1236. DOI: 10.1021/cr3003399.
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Iwona Strzelecka, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Maciej Słodki, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora and Bettina Cuneo
Based on fourteen case reports from various centres from 1992-2015 and three original studies in 2006-2011, 122 fetuses were subjected to analysis. In these reports, transplacental digoxin treatment was administered to different cardiac anomalies such as SVT , Ebstein’s anomaly, critical AS , absent pulmonary valve syndrome, complete heart block, in foetuses with aneurysm/diverticulum of LV, in tricuspid atresia or dysplasia, rhabdomyoma, pulmonary atresia, HLHS with fibroelastosis, in TTTS and in extracardiac anomalies such as atriovenous malformation or sacrococcygeal teratoma. There was no statistical difference to suggest (Chi-square test) that digoxin was more efficient to control fetal arrhythmias than fetal congestive heart failure in nonarrhythmic patients.
Conclusions: Foetal cardiac insufficiency may appear due to different reasons (in normal heart anatomy or in heart defects, in normal sinus rhythm or due to foetal arrhythmias: tachycardias or severe bradycardia) and may be a cause of intrauterine demise. So far, we do not have strong evidence that digoxin treatment may prevent foetal death or prematurity. More research is needed to ascertain if the prolonging of pregnancy resulted from digoxin treatment or if improvement in foetal circulatory insufficiency was influenced by spontaneous regression of foetal cardiac symptoms.
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