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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound waves on mechanical properties of organic bread. Mixed grain bread baked at a local bakery according to its original recipe was the material subjected to testing. Prior to baking, the dough was sonicated at frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz for 3 minutes, and at a frequency of 100 kHz for 3 minutes and 6 minutes. The mechanical properties of the bread (compression test, penetration test and TPA) were examined after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h following the baking process. The maximum work obtained in the compression test after 24 h following the baking ranged from 616 N to 668 N. On the next day following the baking, the maximum work value ranged from 750 N to 898 N, while after 72 hours, it ranged from 988 N to 1135 N. In the penetration test, the following results were obtained: after 24 hours, the force value ranged from 2.71 N to 3.17 N; after 48 hours following the baking, it ranged from 4.90 N to 6.35 N; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 3.98 N to 6.88 N. As regards elasticity, the obtained results fell within the following ranges: after 24 hours following the baking, from 0.53 to 0.58; after 48 hours following the baking, from 0.43 to 0.55; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 0.40 to 0.45. Gumminess measured after 24 hours following the baking ranged from 8.75 N to 18.71 N; after 48 hours, from 10.83 N to 15.48 N; and after 72 hours, the gumminess values ranged from 15.57 N to 19.06 N. As regards chewiness, the following results were obtained: after 24 hours following the baking, from 8.00 N to 17.59 N; after 48 hours following the baking, from 9.77 N to 13.87 N; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 12.56 N to 16.85 N. The frequencies and durations of sonication applied changed no mechanical properties of the tested bread.

blood-derived ECs, such as: proliferation, release of soluble factors nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), gene expression of HSPA4 (gene encoding heat shock protein 70 kDa A), and anti-thrombogenic potential. More specifically, this work is focused on the ability of these cells to adapt to hypergravity conditions and modulate these functions after short-term culture and expansion under simulated microgravity conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides valuable insight into the functionality of human


Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is used in many neurological disorders to remove immunoglobulin and other immunologically active substances. We observed patients that were admitted in Rīga East Clinical University Hospital “Gaiļezers”, Clinic of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Multiple Sclerosis Unit, and were diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), according to McDonald criteria 2010 (five patients), Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (three patients) and one with NMO, according to Wingerchuk 2006 criteria. All relapses were confirmed according to clinical criteria. Visual acuity was assessed by an ophthalmologist, and neurological status by a neurologist. All patients received at least 1 cycle of 1000 mg methylprednisolone intravenous for five to seven days. The expanded disability status scale score in the MS patient group was in range 4.0-9.0 before TPE and 3.5-6.5 range after TPE. Best improvement was observed in the MS group: mean symptom reduction of 20%. Patients with NMO spectrum disorder had an EDSS score of 8.0-8.5 range on admission and 6.5-8.0 range after TPE. After one month, one patient in the NMO spectrum disorder group had good response to TPE and EDSS was 3.5, two patients had only slight improvement (EDSS scores 8.0 and 7.5). Condition of patients with NMO did not improve even after a month.


The lack of evidence for the tissue-factor dependent activation of the coagulation system and the release of thrombin on one hand, and a decreased concentration of factor XII after short term air, saturated air and heliox exposures, as well as an increased concentration of the plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) after short dives indicate that diving and decompression possibly affect fibrinolysis. The aim of our research was to verify the assumption that diving and decompression activate the system of fibrinolysis and the clarification of the pathomechanism of this activation.

The study involved 50 healthy volunteers who were subjected to short-term, air hyperbaric exposures at 400 kPa and 700 kPa, which correspond to 30m and 60m dives. Decompression was applied in accordance with Naval tables of decompression. Before hyperbaric exposition and after decompression the following factors were determined: activity of factor XII, concentration and activity of t-PA, concentration and activity of PAI-1, concentration of alpha2- antiplasmin, concentration of PAP, concentration of neutrophil elastase.

The following observations have been made: a statistically significant increase in the factor XII activity, increase in the PAP complex concentration and a simultaneous significant decline in the α2-AP activity. No measurable t-PA activity or significant changes in t-PA concentration have been observed. In addition, a statistically significant decline in both the activity and concentration of PAI-1 has been observed, which was more pronounced after the expositions that corresponded to 60 m dives. The concentrations of granulocyte elastase did not differ significantly before and after decompression.

Conclusions: People qualified for diving should have the following risk factors examined: risk factors of increased fibrynolytic activity - haemostasis abnormalities that increase the risk of haemorrhage, possibility of parietal blood clots/thrombi.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the technological suitability of selected beef muscles: m. semitendinosus (BST), m. semimembranosus (BSM), mm. psoas major and minor (BPM) as entire primal cuts in the production of raw fermented meats, compared to the raw pork rump (RSR) and loin (RSL), widely known in the Podlasie region. The 4-week maturation was conducted by the same traditional method in a genuine ripening room, and the texture, colour and sensory parameters of the pork and beef products were compared. The lowest water activity (0.89 and 0.83), pH (5.16 and 4.75) as well as the highest WB shear force (8.50 and 19.96 kG/cm2) and TPA hardness (52.12 and 199.24 N) were found in the ready-to-eat RSL and BST, respectively. The RSR and BPM were characterized by the lowest values of WB shear force (7.63 and 9.49 kG/cm2), TPA hardness (48.17 and 105.18 N) and TPA chewiness (8.39 and 32.68 N), as well as the highest grades for overall impression (4.50 pts), cross-section colour (4.60 pts), structure (4.60 pts), tenderness (4.30 and 4.70 pts) and flavour desirability (4.60 pts) in the sensory evaluation while the RSL and BPM were the juiciest (4.60 and 4.70 pts). The a* values and chroma showed an increase in redness during the first 2 weeks of beef aging and during the entire aging period in the pork products. The most significant colour differences were found for BSM, BST and BPM products (ΔEL*a*b*=6.48, 5.27 and 4.24, respectively).


Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

Material and methods: The study involved 116 female students (21.1 ± 1.6) and 276 male students (21.2 ± 1.7), studying Physical Education at Kazimierz Wielki University. Physical activity (PA) of respondents assessed using the Canada Fitness Survey was converted to energy expenditure in MET/min/week using the criteria established in the IPAQ. Body composition was assessed according to bioelectrical impedance.

Results: A significantly smaller fat fraction was observed in the group of students with high physical activity (PA) (p < 0.01). In women, there was a significant relation between FAT% and all analysed characteristics of physical activity: total physical activity (TPA) – 0.274, vigorous intensity (VI) – 0.216, number of days spent on physical activity (DTPA) – 0.199 and number of days spent on vigorous intensity (DVI) – 0.202 (p < 0.05). In men, a significant relation was found between all the analysed tissue components and the adopted variables of PA (FAT% vs. TPA – 0.145, VI – 0.203, DTPA – 0.187; FATkg vs. TPA – 0.123, VI – 0.186, DTPA – 0.178; FATkg vs. DVI – 0.131). BMI significantly correlated with VI (–0.162) and DVI (–0.140), p < 0.05.

Conclusions: Based on data collected using the CFS on the type and frequency of PA during a week, we can determine the level of activity in a measurable way, using the IPAQ classification. There is a significant relationship between thus determined physical activity levels and body composition in both women and men, which proves the accuracy of the adopted method of converting weekly energy expenditure to MET/min/week.


The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein via participation in transport of neutral lipids between membrane vesicle is essential for assembly of chylomicrons, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). In human and pigs, it has been confirmed that mutations within MTTP locus affected lipid-transfer activity of this protein. The aim of the present study was to establish potential influences of ENSSSCP00000009789.2:p.Leu840Phe polymorphism on a panel of meat texture parameters measured in two muscles: m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimembranosus. The research performed on 410 pigs showed that investigated missense polymorphism was associated with meat texture profile parameters – TPA (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience, chewiness) as well as firmness and toughness estimated in loin muscle. In whole analyzed population, the meat of pigs with CC genotype was characterized by significantly the lowest value of TPA characteristic and this trend was also confirmed in two breeds (Puławska and Large White pigs). In turn, the results obtained for firmness and toughness parameters in longissimus lumborum were not consistent across the different populations studied. Our research, in connection with previous studies, indicated that the MTTP gene may be considered as a candidate gene responsible for pork quality traits and pinpointed a need for further analysis in order to select useful genetic markers associated with meat quality parameters.


This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radio graphical outcome of cats following TPLO surgery for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Each cat underwent orthopedic assessment, pre-operative radio graphical evaluation, surgical procedure, postoperative management and clinical re-examination 1, 2, and 12 months following surgery. Age, body weights, TPAs, meniscal tears, implants and osteoarthritis progression were recorded. Postoperative OA score was compared with that obtained 1 year after surgery using a paired t-test with commercially available software. Radio graphical evaluation performed 1 year after surgery showed no significant OA progression (P-value > 0.1). Minor complications occurred in one case (#7) in which a mild to moderate seroma was observed ten days after surgery. No major complications were recorded. Although TPLO surgery in cats remains controversial, this study suggests that it was a suitable option for surgical treatment of feline cranial cruciate ligament rupture, but considering the ex vivo outcomes recently published, further in vivo evaluation is strongly recommended.

ALU Insertion Polymorphisms in Populations of the South Caucasus

An analysis of eight Alu insertion loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148 and NBC182) was carried out in three ethnic groups of the South Caucasus (Abkhazians, Armenians and Georgians). Genetic differentiation between these groups (Gst = 1%) was half as much as in European populations and four time less than in populations of Dagestan. Although it was not possible to determine a contribution of Neolithic farmers to the Caucasian gene pool, the principal component analysis showed clear differences between these populations and those of Europe, Siberia and Asia. No evidence of correlation between genetic and linguistic data in our populations was disclosed. However, long-term habitation on common territory has led to common cultural, anthropological and detectable genetic traits.


Small molecules of ThQuTh, CzQuTh, CzQuCz and TPAQuCz were designed and synthesized, based on quinoxaline acceptor, and electron donating groups, i.e. alkyl-thioephene, carbazole and triphenylamine on both side chains and molecular backbones. Their thermal, optical and electrochemical properties were systematically compared and studied. The absorption spectra of the small molecules were strongly affected by the donor units attached to quinoxaline. Strong electron donating groups, such as carbazole on the molecular backbone would lower optical band gap, resulting in a wide absorption and the strong donor on the side chain would enhance the absorption intensity in short wavelength region. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the four molecules were up-shifted with increasing the electron donating properties of donor units. The bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SMs:PC61BM/LiF/Al were fabricated, in which the small molecules functioned as donors while PC61BM as acceptor. Because the electron-donating ability of carbazole (Cz), triphenylamine (TPA) is higher than that of thiophene (Th), CzQuTh, CzQuCz and TPAQuCz show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of ThQuTh. Furthermore, being the strongest in absorption intensity and widest in absorption spectrum, TPAQuCz has the highest power conversion efficiency. Further improvement of the device efficiency by optimizing the device structure is currently under investigation