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Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia arising from insulin resistance combined with relative insulin deficiency. As hyperglycemia becomes chronic, it leads to oxidative stress, which is one of the central mechanisms for glucose toxicity. It is the proximate cause of retinopathy, kidney failure, neuropathies, and macrovascular disease in diabetes [ 1 ]. The genetic basis for developing T2DM has been recognized for a long time. The concordance of T2DM in monozygotic twins is ~70.0% compared with 20.0-30.0% in dizygotic twins
at: http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/IDF%20T2DM%20Guideline.pdf 26. Comaschi M, Coscelli C, Cucinotta D et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects attending outpatient clinics in Italy: The SFIDA (survey of risk factors in Italian diabetic subjects by AMD) study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 15: 204-211, 2005.
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic illness characterized by the disability of the body to utilize glucose either because of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues or because of a decreased production of insulin by the pancreas [ 1 ]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is known to promote the atherosclerotic process, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and by accumulation of foam cells and vessel wall inflammation. As the process continues, the narrowing of the vessel lumen occurs, leading to acute cardiovascular events [ 2
]. The purpose of this study was to investigate an association between the rs668 (+373C/G) polymorphism of the PECAM-1 gene and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods This study included 595 consecutive subjects with T2DM, admitted to the diabetes outpatient clinics of the general hospitals at Murska Sobota and Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia, and from the outpatient department at the Medical Center Medicor, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The inclusion criteria for the control group was the absence of T2DM
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial chronic metabolic disease characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia that causes long-term macrovascular or microvascular complications. Microvascular complications are diabetic nephropathy (DN), neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy (DR) [ 1 , 2 ]. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease [ 1 , 2 ]. In the pathogenesis of DN several environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors are involved in complex interactions [ 3 - 5 ]. In DN, there
Introduction Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disorder, regulated by both genetic and environmental factors [ 1 ]. It is a chronic disease that is associated with the incapability of tissues such as liver and skeletal muscles to respond to insulin. Several genetic, as well as environmental factors, contribute to the etiology of T2DM [ 1 ]. One of them is vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to the development of T2DM and metabolic syndrome [ 2 ]. Recent studies have shown that high vitamin D status offers protection
Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading global epidemic of the 21st century with over 422 million diabetics worldwide. The prediction of prevalence of diabetes mellitus patients by 2035 according to the World Health Organization (WHO) is 592 million patients ( 1 ). In the Republic of Serbia, 710,000 people or 12.4% of the population suffer from DM, and the increase in the number of patients is estimated to be 15.2% by 2035 ( 2 ). Blood is classified as a connective tissue, with cellular elements suspended in plasma. Elevated blood glucose level in T2DM
Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the cardio-metabolic profilebetween younger (< 45 years) and older (≥ 45 years) people with newly diagnosedtype 2 diabetes (T2DM). Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study including910 persons with newly diagnosed T2DM and registered at the Clinical Center ofDiabetes Cluj-Napoca was carried out between 2006 - 2008. Results: The mean agewas 40.21±3.60 yrs. in the younger group and 60.08±8.22 yrs. in the older group.Both groups of patients were obese, but the younger-onset group was significantlymore obese as measured by body mass index (BMI), than the older group (BMI 32.45vs. 30.61 kg/m2, p=0.001). The absolute coronary heart disease (CHD) risk level wassignificantly higher in older than younger individuals (p<0.001). Conclusions:Despite being two decades younger, it is remarkable that many young people withnewly diagnosed T2DM have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.
Objective. Genetic variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been described as the most noteworthy ones regarding the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) liability. This work is aimed to evaluate the association between rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms and T2DM in patients with cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk.
Methods. A sample of six hundred and forty-seven patients that underwent the coronary angiography in a Cardiac Catheterization Lab was evaluated. The patients were investigated for the presence of T2DM and coronary stenosis. The TCF7L2 polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR and the haplotype analysis was performed with the MLOCUS software. All genetic tests were carried out by considering the haplotype combinations in patients divided into three groups: 0 – carrying none disease risk allele, 1 – carrying one or two risk alleles and 2 – carrying three or four risk alleles.
Results. No significant associations between TCF7L2 risk haplotypes and the presence of T2DM or CAD were detected.
Conclusions. Our results indicate that the TCF7L2 rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms do not influence T2DM in Brazilian patients with the high risk for CAD. Therefore, we assume that these variants may only be relevant for a specific subgroup of T2DM patients or some particular human population.