The aim of the study was to show the impact of the peat extraction on the development and properties of organic soils and plant habitat in post-extraction sites. The study was conducted in the complex of the Trzcińskie Mokradła Peatlands (Sudetes Mts., SW Poland). The Trzcińskie Mokradła Peatlands began to form in Preboreal (10960–9330 ±50BP) so that they are one of the oldest peatlands in the Sudetes. We analyzed 8 soil profiles (42 samples). Peat forming process there is still active in the moderate or strong degree (PtII-PtIII). The floristic composition of the studied areas was typical of transition peatlands. Successive dry and moist periods were observed in the developed of organic soils. The time gaps in peat profiles covering hundreds of years prove their extraction in the past.
The aim of this work was to determine the intensity of nitrogen mineralization in forestry drained ombrotrophic peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park, SW Poland. Additionally discussion about the shallow organic soils classification according to is presented. For the study three research transects were established on forestry drained ombrotrophic peatlands in the Stołowe Mountains. Each of the transect consisted of four (site A and B) or five (site C) sampling plots. Sampling was conducted in the year 2012. The soil samples for the basic soil properties analysis were sampled in April, whereas undisturbed soil samples were collected in stainless steel rings (100 cm3) every 10 cm in April (spring), July (summer) and October (autumn) to show the seasonal dynamics of nitrogen mineralization. Statistical analysis showed that the content of N-NH4 was mainly determined by actual soil moisture and precipitation rate, whereas the content of N-NO3 was positively correlated with air temperature. Among investigated peatlands the highest concentrations of mineral nitrogen forms was observed in the Długie Mokradło bog, situated on the Skalniak Plateau-summit. Additionally, the results obtained showed that implementation of new subtype: shallow fibric peat soils (in Polish: gleby torfowe fibrowe płytkie) within the type of peat soils (in polish: gleby torfowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Polish Soil Classification.
Past environmental changes in mountain lakes can be reconstructed with the use of subfossil diatoms from post-glacial sediments. This study applied such an analysis to two mountain lakes in the Sudetes Mts. in Poland: Mały Staw (MS) and Wielki Staw (WS). Cores 882 cm long (MS) and 1100 cm long (WS) taken from the centre of each lake in 1982 were used to study the long-term acidification history of these lakes. Changes in vegetation indicate that the initial phase of MS started at the end of the Pleistocene. WS sediments began to accumulate shortly after that, at the beginning of the Holocene. The majority of the diatom assemblages are typical of oligotrophic acidic lakes located in alpine and arctic regions. A pH reconstruction based on diatoms (DI-pH) showed long-term acidification dating to almost the beginning of the lakes’ existence. Natural acidification began after the deglaciation, and the most intensive acidification continued to the end of the mid-Holocene. Through the whole period studied, pH decreased by 1.4 in MS and 0.9 in WS. After a period of relatively stable lake water pH, it decreased rapidly during the last few decades of the 20th century, due to anthropogenic pollution: pH declined by 0.7 in MS and 0.3 in WS. Mały Staw, being shallower, smaller, and with a larger drainage basin than Wielki Staw, is more sensitive to acid deposition; this accounts for the difference in pH.
We found ubiquitous evidence of ongoing slope instability by analysing the variability of tree-ring eccentricity index in trees growing on three apparently relict landslide slopes in the Sudetes (Poland, Central Europe). Slow movement of these landslide bodies occurs in the present-day conditions and is recorded almost every year, although with variable intensity. Correlation of dendrochronological record with the rainfall record from a nearby station in Mieroszów for the 1977–2007 period is very poor for two deep-seated rotational slides at Mt Suchawa and Mt Turzyna but considerably better for a shallow flowslide at Mt Garbatka. While this may reflect higher permeability of heavily jointed rocks involved in deep-seated sliding this could be linked with imperfections in the rainfall record. Dendrochronology proved capable of detecting minor displacements within landslides which otherwise show no geomorphic evidence of recent activity. Therefore, claims for the entirely relict nature of the landslides are not substantiated.
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