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Combined sewer systems in cities are increasingly equipped with additional storage facilities or other installations necessary for keeping the wastewater treatment plants from overloading during wet weather and reducing combined sewer overflows into receiving waters. Effective methods for reducing such negative phenomena include the temporary storage of wet weather flow in an end-of-pipe separate tank or in a sewer system. In this paper, four scenarios of wastewater storage for the Group Wastewater Treatment Plant (GWWTP) in Lodz (Poland) have been analysed: a storage in a separate single tank located in GWWTP, a storage in the bypass channel in GWWTP, in-sewer storage, and a combination of the aforementioned variants, also with real time control (RTC) system introduced. The basic calculations were performed using the EPA’s SWMM software for the period of 5 years (2004-2008). The chosen solution - storage in a separate storage tank - has been verified based on the inflow dataset from the years 2009-2013. The specific volume of the separate storage tank should be at least 22 m3 per hectare of impervious catchment area, but it could be reduced if additional in-sewer storage with RTC were introduced. Both options allow the effective protection of receiving waters against discharge of untreated sewage during wet weather.
This paper deals with the analysis and design of a model predictive control (MPC) strategy used in connection with level control in conically shaped industrial liquid storage tanks. The MPC is based on a non-linear dynamic model describing changes of the liquid level concerning changes in the inlet flow of the liquid. Euler discretization of the dynamic system was applied to transform con-tinuous time dynamics to its discrete-time counterpart used in non-linear MPC (NMPC) design. By means of a simulation case study, NMPC has been shown to track the changes of the liquid level, hence provides increased control performance. This paper also compares the traditional approach of optimal control, linear MPC, with the NMPC strategy.
The installation of thermal energy storage system (TES) provides the optimisation of energy source, energy security supply, power plant operation and energy production flexibility. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the feasibility of thermal energy system installation at Riga TPP–2. The six modes were investigated: four for non-heating periods and two for heating periods. Different research methods were used: data statistic processing, data analysis, analogy, forecasting, financial method and correlation and regression method. In the end, the best mode was chosen – the increase of cogeneration unit efficiency during the summer.
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