Eva N. Kabaš, Antun A. Alegro, Nevena V. Kuzmanović, Ksenija M. Jakovljević, Snežana S. Vukojičić and Dmitar V. Lakušić
Phytosociological characteristics of grassland communities above serpentines (order Halacsyetalia sendtneri H. Ritter-Studnčka 1970) in Serbia, are analyzed according to Braun-Blanquet methodology. In order to detect the basic floristic differentiation of analyzed communities ordinary correspondence analysiswas applied. Cluster analysiswas also performed to see the structure and separation of the communities based on the floristic composition. In order to determine diagnostic species, fidelity indices with presence/ absence data and the size of all groups standardized to equal size were calculated. The new association Stipetum novakii is described in open rocky serpentine grasslands in Brdjani Gorge.
Ignacy Kutyna, Ewa Drewniak and Elżbieta Młynkowiak
Xerothermic grasslands within the area of the eastern margin of the Oder River valley in the vicinity of the town of Górzyca
On the basis of 49 phytosociological relevés taken in the area of the eastern edge of the Oder River valley in Owczary and the adjacent areas, four vegetation communities were distinguished. Within the Festuco-Brometea class, two associations occur - Potentillo-Stipetum capillatae and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. The phytocoenoses of these syntaxa settle mainly on soils formed from light silty loam and heavy loamy sand of an alkaline reaction, containing CaCO3. Soils formed from loamy sand lying on loam, of an alkaline reaction with calcium carbonate are also settled by patches of the Sileno otitis-Festucetum association from the Koelerio glaucae-Corynephoretea canescentis class. It is the plant community of the psammophilous grasslands, related, to a significant extent, to xerothermic grasslands as far as the floristic composition is concerned. Within this community, a typical variant and the one with Stipa capillata were distinguished. The typical community of the psammophilous grasslands is Diantho-Armerietum elongatae. The phytocoenoses of this association are found on sandy soils of an acid and slightly acid reaction.
Bromo Moesiacae-Stipetum Epilosae - a New Association from the Relict Mountain Steppe Vegetation in South-Western Bulgaria
A syntaxonomical analysis of the dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea) in Bosnek karst region, Mt Vitosha (SW Bulgaria) has been carried out. These grasslands are part of the intrazonal vegetation distributed within the belts of xerophilous oak and mesophilous beech forest in the south-western foothills of the mountain. The bedrock is carbonate, the soils are dry and shallow, climate - moderate continental. This vegetation grows mostly on steep slopes, with southern and south-western exposition. Apart from the typical for Festuco-Brometea calcicoles, the studied vegetation is characterized by many endemic (regional and local) species and at the same time includes a lot of Mediterranean species. As a result of the analysis, a new association, Bromo moesiacae-Stipetum epilosae ass. nova, has been established that belongs to the alliance Saturejon montanae. A comparison with related syntaxa from other karst mountains from SW Bulgaria and E Serbia is made, and some conclusions about the origin of the steppe vegetation in that region are drawn.
The state of knowledge of Macromycetes in xerothermic grasslands in Poland
The short history of research on and the current state of knowledge of macromycetes occurring in xerothermic swards of the class Festuco-Brometea in Poland over the last 50 years are presented. Mycological investigations in most communities, e.g. Sisymbrio-Stipetum capillatae and Thalictro-Salvietum pratensis have been carried out rather occasionally and the information concerning steppe fungi has been reported in few papers only. Regular mycological studies have been conducted in five plant associations only: Festucetum pallentis, Origano-Brachypodietum, Koelerio-Festucetum rupicolae, Potentillo-Stipetum capillatae and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati.
The list of species of fungi recorded in xerothermic swards in Poland is not long and comprises approximately 40 species. Some are very rare and put on the red-list as threatened macrofungi in Poland (36), e.g. Calvatia candida, Disciseda bovista, D. candida, Gastrosporium simplex, Geastrum minimum, G. schmidelli, Leucopaxillus lepistoides, Montagnea radiosa, Myriostoma coliforme, Polyporus rhizophilus and Tulostoma melanocyclum.
The mycological profile of xerothermic swards in Poland has been under-explored. Further investigations on macrofungi occurring in steppe swards, their distribution and ecology as well as threats resulting from the disappearance of this type of plant communities in Poland are necessary.
State of preservation of xerothermic grasslands in Kuyavian-Pomeranian region
The Kuyavian-Pomeranian region is a highly significant center for the presence of thermophilous plants presence. Due to its location in the Toruń-Eberswald valley, it is an important route of post-glacial plant migration. The best preserved steppe grasslands are maintained on small areas of the edge of lower Vistula and Noteć river valleys. Most of them are under reserve protection: "Kulin", "Zbocza Płutowskie", "Ostnicowe Parowy Gruczna", "Góra Św. Wawrzyńca", "Skarpy Ślesińskie", and "Tarkowo". Patches of thermophilic plants are also numerous outside those reserves.
Twenty-three associations of xerothermic grasslands are found in Poland; there are 7 associations in the region, and three others can still be found. The degree of recognition of xerothermic grassland communities in Kuyavian-Pomeranian region is relatively good, but uneven. Among 60 publications, only 11 contain phytosociological reléves (310 in total). Other unpublished works contain 169 reléves. Among 484 reléves almost 36% refer to fragmentary communities of Festuco-Brometea class. The best formed and studied typical thermophilic communities have been the following: Scorzonero purpureae-Stipetum joannis, Potentillo arenariae-Stipetum capillatae, and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. Phytocenoses Sileno otitae-Festucetum trachyphyllae and Tunico-Poetum compressae have been less documented and classified by some authors as psammophilic vegetation. Viscario-Avenetum pratensis is probably the extinct community in the region. The presence of phytocenoses of Saxifrago tridactylitae-Poetum compressae, an association poorly documented in Poland, has been confirmed.
The list of endangered or protected thermophilic plants within the region consists of 89 species. Many of such taxa disappeared during the last decades, mainly because of abandonment of unprofitable meadow-pasture management. On the other hand, the phenomenon of encroachment of the xerothermic plant species, some endangered and rare, onto secondary habitats can be observed.
As regards the xerothermic grasslands and disappearance of associated species, monitoring and practices of active protection are necessary. Not always can we predict the directions of changes occurring within grasslands resulting from the applied operations.
Daniela Dübravková-Michálková, Monika JanišOvá, Jiří Kolbek, Róbert Šuvada, Viktor Virók and Mária Zaliberová
Dry Grasslands in the Slovenský Kras MTS (Slovakia) and the Aggteleki-karszt MTS (Hungary) — A Comparison of Two Classification Approaches
The paper brings numerical classification of 48 new phytosociological relevés of dry grassland vegetation from the Slovenský kras Mts and the Aggteleki-karszt Mts located on the border between Slovakia and Hungary (Central Europe). We performed a comparison of two classification approaches (an unsupervised method - modified TWINSPAN, and a supervised approach - electronic expert system based on formal definitions of associations), which were applied on the same dataset. Four associations were distinguished: Campanulo divergentiformis-Festucetum pallentis Zólyomi (1936) 1966, Poo badensis-Caricetum humilis (Dostál 1933) Soó ex Michálková in Janišová et al. 2007, Alysso heterophylli-Festucetum valesiacae (Dostál 1933) Kliment in Kliment et al. 2000 and Festuco rupicolae-Caricetum humilis Klika 1939. A newly recorded stand of the rare Stipetum tirsae Meusel 1938 association is characterised. What is more, we established a neotype of the Alysso heterophylli-Festucetum valesiacae association.
Diversity of Dry Grasslands in the Považský Inovec MTS (slovakia) - A Numerical Analysis
The paper reveals a numerical and ecological analysis of 128 published relevés of xerothermic vegetation of the Považský Inovec Mts. Four associations have been recognised: Festuco valesiacae-Stipetum capillatae Sillinger 1930, Festuco pallentis-Caricetum humilis Sillinger 1930 corr. Gutermann et Mucina 1993, Poo badensis-Festucetum pallentis Klika 1931 corr. Zólyomi 1966 nom. invers. propos. and Minuartio setaceae-Seslerietum coeruleae Klika 1931 nom. mut. propos. Through the numerical methods, the study reconsiders the conception of the dry grassland associations, which are traditionally used in phytocoenological literature. It also defines the indication taxa group of the associations and characterises their environmental conditions. Major environmental gradients influencing the vegetation were interpreted using average Ellenberg indication values. Finally, the classification within the higher vegetation units, the nomenclature of the associations and the environmental threats are discussed.
History of the research on xerothermic vegetation in the Nida Basin and problems related to its conservation
The history of botanical exploration in the Nida Basin is more than 140 years old. Intensive research, however, began 95 years ago. Initially those were floristic studies, but along with the development of other research fields, in particular phytosociology, they dealt also with plant communities. Characteristic xerothermic associations described from the investigated area were: Sisymbrio-Stipetum capillatae, Inuletum ensifoliae, Thalictro-Salvietum pratensis, Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae, Carici flaccae-Tetragonolobetum maritimi and Koelerio-Fesucetum sulcatae. At present, studies related to ecology and biology of selected taxa were also carried out, and this is also connected with the possibility of their "in situ" conservation. This particularly concerns the species endangered with extinction: e.g. Linum hirsutum, Carlina onopordifolia, Reseda phyteuma, Sisymbrium polymorphum or Lathyrus pannonicus. Many of these plants were listed in the "Polish Red Data Book of Plants" and on the "Red Data List". In particularly valuable areas, nature reserves were created. Initially those were "strict" reserves, but at present when it became clear that the lack of land use (particularly grazing and mowing) induced the succession processes, it was necessary to change their status to "partial" nature reserves. At present, other forms of surface nature conservation in the Nida Basin include ecological lands and protected landscape areas.
Rocky pastures dominated by Stipa austroitalica in the south-east of Italy were classified within an endemic alliance, Hippocrepido glaucae-Stipion austroitalicae, originally assigned to a Balkan order (Scorzoneretalia villosae). Actually, the distribution area of S. austroitalica extends further westwards and large patches are found on the south-east side of the Pollino Massif. This study aims to describe and characterise the plant communities dominated by S. austroitalica in this area and analyse their floristic and chorological relationships with other associations of Hippocrepido-Stipion. Moreover, their syntaxonomy is discussed in the context of the Italian and south European dry grasslands biogeography. The grasslands were studied on the basis of 19 phytosociological relevés. A larger data set, including 185 relevés with S. austroitalica, was used to visualise the relationships among the associations through nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling ordination. The results allowed the description of a new association, Bupleuro gussonei-Stipetum austroitalicae, classified within Hippocrepido-Stipion. As a consequence, the alliance synrange was extended up to the Pollino Massif. The Hip pocrepido-Stipion, together with Cytiso spinescentis-Bromion erecti, was arranged in Euphorbietalia myrsinitidis, an endemic order of the Italian peninsula. The proposed scheme upgrades the syntaxonomy and nomenclature of the dry grasslands vegetation of central and southern Italy.
The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of selected species from Disciseda, Geastrum and Tulostoma genera which due to the small differences in morphology of their fruit bodies may pose some identification problems. The selected species of gasteroid fungi of these genera are described based on the materials collected during the course of our studies. All materials were gathered during the research into macromycetes in xerothermic habitats located in the Nida Basin. Taxa noted by us are considered to be very rare in the mycobiota of Poland and are highly endangered.