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, Sigge A, Poppert S: Superiority of Molecular Techniques for Identification of Gram-Negative, Oxidase-Positive Rods, Including Morphologically Nontypical Pseudomonas aeruginosa, from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis, J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43(8):4070-5. 5. Carmody LA, Spilker T, Li Puma JJ: Reassessment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia phenotype, J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49:1101–1103. 6. Bosshard PP, Zbinden R, Abels S, Böddinghaus B, Altwegg M, Böttger EC: 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing versus the API 20NE system and the VITEK 2 ID-GNB Card for identification of non fermenting

Institute, 2014. 9. Ross RA, Marzec G. 1984. The bacterial diseases of reptiles. Their epidemiology, control, diagnosis and treatment, p 3, 7-10, 14-18. Institute for Herpetological Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. 10. Wood GC, Underwood EL, Croce MA, Swanson JM, Fabian TC. Treatment of recurrent Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilatorassociated pneumonia with doxycycline and aerosolized colistin. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:1665-1668 11. Kolpen M, Kragh KN, Bjarnsholt T, Line L, Hansen CR, Dalbøge CS, et al. Denitrifi cation by cystic fibrosis

Abstract

The biosorption of Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from industrial wastewater using Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis was investigated under various experimental conditions regarding pH, metal concentration and contact time. The optimum pH values for the biosorption of the three metals were in the range 5.0-6.0, while the optimal contact time for the two bacterial species was 30 min. Experimental data was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms; the former had a better fit for the biosorption of Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II). The maximum adsorption uptakes (qmax) of the three metals calculated from the Langmuir biosorption equation for S. maltophilia were 133.3, 47.8 and 54.3 for Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II), respectively, and for B. subtilis were 166.7, 49.7 and 57.8 mg/g, respectively. B. subtilis biomass was more favorable for the biosorption of Pb (II) and Ni (II), while S. maltophilia was more useful for the biosorption of Zn (II).

References Alonso A, Martinez JL. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41(5):1140-2. Denton M, Kerr KG. Microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11(1):57-80. Elting LS, Bodey GP. Septicemia due to Xanthomonas species and non-aeruginosa Pseudomonas species: increasing incidence of catheter-related infections. Medicine (Baltimore). 1990;69(5):296-306. Elting LS, Khardori N, Bodey GP. Nosocomial infection caused by Xanthomonas

tarda : a pathoanatomical study in Clarias batrachus – J. Aquacult. 6: 57-66. Salvadori L., Gioia D.D., Fava F., Barberio C. 2006 – Degradation of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols by a Stenotrophomonas strain and development of new phylogenetic probes for Stenotrophomonas spp detection – Curr. Microbiol. 52: 13-20. Sansawat A., Thirabunyanon M. 2009 – Anti- Aeromonas hydrophila activity and characterisation of novel probiotic strains of Bacillus subtilis isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of giant freshwater prawns – Maejo. Int. J. Sci. Technol. 3: 77

conditionally pathogenic to ichthyic species. Fish exhibiting clinical signs of the diseases often harbour the following microorganisms: Acinetobacter spp., Kocuria spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides , Sphingomonas paucimobilis , and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . The aim of this article is to present new potential bacteriological agents isolated from fish, which can cause diseases in freshwater fish cultures. Commonly known bacterial infections occurring in freshwater fish Aeromonas infections . Almost every year health disorders in freshwater fish are recorded on many

.aquatox.2009.02.002 17. Gordon, N.C., Wareham, D.W. Antimicrobial activity of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2010, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 129-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.03.025 18. Konnecker, G., Regelmann, J., Belanger, S., et al. Environmental properties and aquatic hazard assessment of anionic surfactants: Physicochemical, environmental fate and ecotoxicity properties. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2011, vol

Abstract

Objective A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care center to identify the risk factors of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) through phenotypic and molecular biological methods.

Methods The patients who were mechanically ventilated in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) and the neurological internal intensive care unit (NICU) were enrolled in our study, and samples were collected from the lower respiratory tract, oropharynx and stomach. Other samples, including the environmental air, swabs of nurses’ hands, subglottic secretion and ventilator circuit, were also collected. Microorganisms in the collected samples were recovered and identified at species level by biochemical detection. Genetic relationship of dominant species was further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results Out of 48 enrolled patients, 22 cases developed VAP and bacterial cultures were recovered from the lower respiratory tract samples of 14 cases. The average hospitalization time with VAP was significantly longer than that of patients without VAP (P < 0.05). Among the recovered bacteria cultures, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were dominant. It was more likely that subglottic secretion and gastric juice samples contained the same isolates as recovered in the lower respiratory tract by PFGE analysis.

Conclusions Mechanical ventilation in RICU and NICU was a high risk factor for VAP development. Special emphasis of VAP prophylaxis should be paid on subglottic secretion and gastric juice reflux.

Abstract

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in minimal mineral water media in the presence of bacterial mixed cultures consisting of several individual strains is proposed. Starting from the fact that the properties and features of bacterial strains in mixed cultures can be supplemented and compensated, two-, three- and seven-membered mixed cultures (MC) were performed. The strains used for the construction of the MC were isolated from the waste canal of a former PCB producer. The highest biodegradation of 70 % of the sum of seven defined PCB congeners was achieved by two-membered MC containing the strains Rhodococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia added in the biomass ratio of 1 : 3 and 3 : 1. PCB biodegradation by a seven-membered MC was lower (58 %) but provided several benefits over the less-membered mixed cultures or the individual strains: similarity to naturally occurring microflora, easier preparation of the inocula, certain and repeatable results. Periodical reinoculation of the water media resulted to PCB biodegradation increase to 65 %. Seven-membered MC was applied to the historically PCB contaminated sediment as well, where a 59 % degradation of the sum of seven PCB congeners was determined.

Abstract

Aim: In vitro antibacterial activity of 6-substituted-3(2H)-pyridazinone-2-acetyl-2-(substituted/nonsubstitutedbenzal/ acetophenone) hydrazone derivatives were tested in common species causing hospital-acquired infections. Material and Method: Antimicrobial activities of the compounds were performed by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative and four Candida species fungi. Modified serial microdilution method was carried out. Reference strains of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were used. Results: In general, eleven compounds exhibited considerable activity. Comparatively, compound 3 exhibited strong activity against Enterobacter hormaechei and 5, 11 were the most active against Acinetobacter baumannii at 31.25 μg/mL. Compounds 1,2,3,4,8 and 10 were found to be as active as positive control ampicillin trihidrate against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. On the other hand, compounds 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,10 and 11 showed strong antifungal activitiy as much as fluconazole against Candida tropicalis. Compound 1 was mostly active against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. It was also revealed that the antifungal activity of compounds 1, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were higher than the others. Compound 1 and 8 exhibited the best activity against Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis respectively. Conclusions: All tested compounds showed better activity against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast than Gram-positive bacteria. These compounds may be considered as alternative antimicrobial agents in the treatment of multiple drug resistant Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and fungal pathogens. Especially, we suggested that Compound 1 and 8 might be a promising candidate of new antifungal agents