Breeding birds of shelterbelts near Sombor (NW Serbia)
In 2008, breeding birds were studied in the shelterbelts surrounded by arable land NW of Sombor (Vojvodina, NW Serbia). Seven 500 m long sections of wooded shelterbelts were selected and surveyed for birds six times between May and July. Sampling plots differed in tree species composition and dominance, in height of trees, and presence and composition of shrub and herb layers. 22 breeding species were found with a mean density of 9.86 ± 1.47 pairs/km of shelterbelt. The mean number of species per shelterbelt was 8.3 ± 1.2. Species richness ranged from 4 (shelterbelt G) to 14 (shelterbelt D) species. Similarity, measured by the Sørensen index, showed strong qualitative similarity (over 70%) between the compared communities in only 19% of all possible pairs of shelterbelts. The most abundant breeding species were Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Greenfinch Carduelis chloris, with overall linear densities of 2.9 and 2.6 pairs/km, respectively. Overall linear densities of a further four species (Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus, Whitethroat Sylvia communis and Cuckoo Cuculus canorus) exceeded 1 pair/km. The densities of breeding birds are compared to those obtained during other studies in Europe and elsewhere.
The Pan-Slavic Association of Dermatovenereologists (PSADVs) was founded in May 1928, and it included dermatologic associations of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia. Its president was Prof. Krzysztalowicz from Poland. The 1st Congress of this association was held in Warsaw in 1929, and the 2nd Congress was organized by the Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia (ADVY), in Belgrade in 1931. The president of the Organizing Committee was Prof. Đorđe Đorđevic, and the secretary Assoc. Prof. Milan Kićevac from the Clinic of Dermatovenereology in Belgrade. The Congress was attended by representatives of Slavic national associations, as well as by representatives of French, Romanian, Greek and Turkish dermatology. The number of participants amounted to 160 physicians and 60 members of their families.
According to the report of Ilić S., 104 papers had been presented: 48 from Yugoslavia (37 from Serbia, 3 from Croatia, 3 from Macedonia, and 5 from Bosnia), 23 from Czechoslovakia, 18 from Poland, 8 from France, 5 from Romania, 1 from Turkey, and 1 from Greece.
Most papers were from the area of sexually transmitted diseases: 43 papers (41.35% of the total number). Out of these, 27 papers were on syphilis, followed by gonorrhea with 9 papers. There were both research and experimental papers. The authors insisted on assessing diagnostic and therapeutic issues, as well as disease prevention.
The second most frequent group of diseases accounted for eczema. The problem included the defi nition and pathogenesis of the disease. The third group of diseases was tuberculosis. The results of experiments on animals were studied pointing out the need for reclassifi cation of skin tuberculosis in relation to internal tuberculosis.
A small number of papers were on other infections of the skin and genitals, as well as individual cases of various dermatoses. During the Congress, social events were also organized, as well as a banquet on the ship Alexander I cruising on the Danube and Sava. Optional travel tours to all parts of Yugoslavia were also offered.
Soon after the Congress, foreign journals published reports on its high professional level and the entire organization.
Background: Biosimilars are currently a reality of the pharmaceutical market in the European Union. This paper describes the current regulatory policy for approving biosimilars both in the European Union and in Serbia, which is not a Member State. Also, a comprehensive analysis on biosimilars consumption data on the Serbian market has been performed.
Methods: The European Medicines Agency has established a series of biosimilar scientific guidelines that comprises a regulatory policy for biosimilars in the European Union. This has enabled different biosimilar products to be marketed, making the European Union biosimilar market the most developed one globally. In the paper, this regulatory environment has been analysed, emphasising all relevant biosimilar guidelines as well as marketed biosimilar medicines. Also, an analysis is performed on Serbian regulatory requirements for approving and marketing biosimilars, analysing the Serbian regulatory authority’s consumption data as well as data available from the National Health Insurance Institution.
Results: In the paper, the comprehensive analysis of the current European Union as well as Serbian regulatory environment has been presented, with a special emphasis on the Serbian market potential for biosimilar medicines. Detailed consumption data has been analysed for the period 2007-2011.
Conclusion: Serbia has good potential for biosimilar products, which is supported by national health insurance policy and the general trend of cutting the reimbursement costs for prescription medicines. Five year consumption data for biosimilars in Serbia shows that the Serbian biosimilars market is very small in terms of market share values, especially comparing to other large European biosimilar markets.
The seven years’ war (1912 - 1918) and epidemics of infectious diseases, led to a great loss of lives and medical corps of Serbia. As already stated, venereal and skin diseases were spreading in the postwar period that can be seen from medical reports of dermatovenereology institutions. They contain appropriate pathologies and some specific conditions under which they developed. In dermatovenereal pathology, venereal diseases were still dominating. In the outpatientClinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, 10.000 patients were examined during the period from 1919 to 1921, venereal diseases accounted for 73.13%, whereas skin diseases accounted for 26.87% of all established diagnoses. A similar distribution existed at the territory of Serbia (Belgrade excluded) in 1931: venereal diseases accounted for 73.4%, and skin diseases for 26.6%; moreover, in Belgrade, the situation was even more drastic: venereal diseases accounted for 84.7%, and skin diseases for 15.3%. However, in the student population, the distribution was reversed: 43% and 57%, respectively. In regard to venereal diseases, in the series from 1919 to 1921, non-endemic syphilis was the most common disease, if serologically positive cases (latent syphilis) were added up to the clinically manifested cases. In the same series of patients, syphilis was staged as follows: syphilis I in 10%, syphilis II in 29.3%, syphilis III in 1.7%, tabes dorsalis in 0.8%, and latent syphilis in 56% of patients. In regions with endemic syphilis, from 1921 to 1925, the distribution was as follows: syphilis I in 4%, syphilis II in 49.8%, syphilis III in 18.3%, hereditary syphilis in 1.3%, and latent syphilis in 26.5% of patients. In patients suffering from gonorrhea, balanitis was found in 4.5%, and arthritis in 0.43% of cases. Generally, spreading of prostitution had a significant role, and its abolition was an important preventive action. In regard to skin diseases, in the above-mentioned series of patients, treated at the Outpatient Clinic for Skin andVenereal Diseases (1919 - 1921), scabies was the commonest skin disease (26.7%), eczemas were the second most common (21.8%), followed by pyococcal diseases (20.4%), while fungal diseases (4.5%) and skin tuberculosis (1.9%) were considerably less frequent.
This is the final report about the foundation of modern dermatovenereology in Serbia.
Nest-site characteristics and breeding density of Magpie Pica pica in Sombor (NW Serbia)
In March 2009, active Magpie Pica pica nests were censused in the town of Sombor (Vojvodina, NW Serbia) to study nest-site characteristics, breeding density and spatial distribution. The area of the town can be divided into two parts according to different urban landscapes, i.e. the town centre (150 ha) and the residential area (2,224 ha). In total, 222 Magpie nests were found and their height, tree species and nest-site type determined. Nests were found in 25 tree and two shrub species, the most of them (31.1%) being placed in the commonest tree species in the town, the Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis. The majority of the nests were found in tree avenues (39.6%) and groups of trees (31.5%). Nests in the town centre with a mean height (± SD) of 15.2 ± 4.05 m were significantly higher than those in the residential area with a mean height (± SD) of 11.4 ± 5.13 m. The mean distance of nests from the top of the canopy (± SD) was 1.5 ± 1.33 m, demonstrating the Magpie's tendency to place its nests in the very tops of trees in the urban areas. In the residential area, nests were present in every height class, while in the town centre they were not found lower than 5 m. This difference can be explained by denser human population in the town centre and hence greater disturbance (e.g. pedestrians), as found in several other studies, but also by the negative effect of high buildings that prevail there. Thus, the height of surrounding buildings, too, might play an important role in nest-site selection in Magpies breeding in urban habitats, especially in densely built-up areas. Breeding density of Magpie in Sombor was 0.94 pairs/10 ha, with almost twice as high in the town centre as in the residential area. The findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies in Serbia and abroad.
The main objective of this paper is to present problems which get in the way of the implementation of planned structural changes brought about by restructuring. This is a very complex matter and a problem which currently troubles Serbia, considering the large number of enterprises which need to be restructured. As opposed to the practice of most developed countries, and even some transitional countries, with intense restructuring processes, these processes have been rather slow in Serbia. However, restructuring is becoming inevitable for a significant number of domestic enterprises. In some enterprises, restructuring needs to be implemented through the bankruptcy and liquidation procedure since there really are no grounds that support their assistance in the form of subsidies, which will indefinitely prolong their unprofitable operations without any chance for success in the market. Still, enterprises with a chance for success in the market can go a long way with the help of aggressive restructuring. With this in mind, the paper outlines some directions for development of corporate restructuring implementation plans.
Background: The mutant CCR5Δ32 allele confers resist- ance to HIV infection. Several hypotheses regarding its ori- gin and persistence in the human population have been proposed. It is assumed that the Δ32 mutation was intro- duced in Northern or Eastern Europe and that it spread to the south. Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was deter- mined in numerous European nations and regions, further data are needed to complete the puzzle of CCR5Δ32 dis- tribution within the continent.
Methods: To this end, CCR5Δ32 frequency was determined in a Serbian population (sample size 352). DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood and polymerase chain reaction specific for CCR5 gene was performed. A reaction product of 263 bp was obtained from the wild- -type CCR5 sequence and a product of 231 bp was ob- tained from the truncated CCR5Δ32 sequence.
Results: Overall allele frequency of CCR5Δ32 is 4.55%; 0.57% of individuals in the examined population are homo- zygous and 8.52% are heterozygous for CCR5Δ32.
Conclusions: The determined frequency of the CCR5Δ32 allele in a Serbian population is unexpectedly low, consid- ering ethnically related populations. Keywords: CCR5, Δ32, Serbia.
: Finansijsko izvještavanje u funkciji unapređenja poslovnog ambijenta u Crnoj Gori , Bečići, str. 301-313. Radulović, M. (2006) Razvoj institucija i organizacija za podršku malim i srednjim preduzećima i preduzetništvu u Srbiji i uticaj inostranih iskustava (2001-2005), Republika Srbija, Republička agencija za razvoj malih i srednjih preduzeća i preduzetništva, Beograd. Savet Evrope (2000) Evropska povelja o malim preduzećima, dostupno na http://www.vladars.net/sr-SP-Cyrl/Vlada/Ministarstva/mper/OM/upravorg/rstmt/storg/Documents/Povelja%20o%20MSP.pdf (pristupljeno 25
The paper analyses the challenges of modern commercial diplomacy (CD), which became more relevant than it was in the pre crisis period. In this context, the authors analyzed the chronology of implementation of CD in Serbia, scope and efficiency of its activities, and the areas for improvement. Some of their findings, related to the efficiency and challenges in CDs activities, are based on the questionnaire conducted among 25 Serbian CDs. The paper concludes that in order to increase the efficiency of commercial diplomacy, coordination of the activities of the responsible institutions should be improved, to avoid overlapping in their work and to rationalize use of limited resources. However, the authors emphasised that the space for contribution of commercial diplomacy to the increase of export and FDI is insufficient, due to limited export potential and poor investment climate in Serbia. The authors conclude that in order to increase the efficiency of commercial diplomacy in export promotion area, it is important to implement the necessary reforms, which will result in the restructuring of Serbian economy, make it more competitive and export oriented. To increase the inflow of FDI to Serbia, it is necessary to create a business friendly investment climate.
An ongoing issue of expired medications accumulating in some households is a universal problem around the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and structure of expired medications in Serbian households, and to determine which therapeutic groups generated the most waste.
This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted in households in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The study had been performed over 8 month period (December 2011 - July 2012) and it consisted of personal insights into the medication inventory in households.
Of 1008 families, 383 agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (38.3% response rate). In almost a half of households (44.4%), expired medications were maintained. The amount of expired medications was 402 items, corresponding to 9.2% of total medications presented in surveyed households. The majority of expired medications (64.7%) was in solid dosage (tablets, capsules, granules, lozenges), following semisolid (ointments, creams, gel, suppositories) and liquid dosage forms (drops, syrups). Expired medications in the households belonged mostly to 3 categories: antimicrobials for systemic use (16.7%), dermatological preparation (15.9%) and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism (14.2%).
This study revealed that there were relatively large quantities of expired medications in Serbian households, with a high prevalence of antibiotics for systemic use, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism.