M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski
The aim of the study was to investigate Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of 1-3%Mn steels and compare the resultant microstructures, strengths and failure mechanisms with those of conventionally sintered materials. SPS was performed in a vacuum of 5 Pa at 1000°C for 15min under a uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa. The heating rate of 100°C/min was applied. For conventional processing, mixtures of powders were prepared in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Samples were single pressed at 660 MPa, according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in a laboratory tube furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a mixture of 95%N2-5%H2. Heating and cooling rates were 75C°/min and 60°C/min, respectively. The density of SPS samples was higher (up to 7.37 g/cm3) than those after conventional sintering (up to 6.7 g/cm3). Yield strengths of SPS samples were in the range 920-1220 MPa, compared to the maximum of 602 MPa for conventionally sintered Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C. Transverse rupture strengths were the same for this alloy, 1234 MPa, but reached 1473 MPa for SPS 2Mn variant. Interfaces in SPS samples were significantly less contaminated with oxides, which is the result of a more favorable microclimate and pressure acting during SPS. These preliminary results indicate that further research on the SPS of Mn steels is warranted.
Csaba Balázsi, Mónika Furkó, Fruzsina Szira and Katalin Balázsi
Aluminium oxynitride (AlON) has a unique thermal and chemical stability that makes it the perfect candidate for a wide range of applications. This article provides a brief description and comparison of the most common AlON preparation methods along with their advantages and disadvantages. Although there has been extensive research on the material, especially more recently because of increased commercial interest, extensive systematic powder synthesis and processing studies have not been carried out to determine alternate, more cost efficient routes to fully dense transparent bodies. Further optimization of reaction sintering and transient liquid phase sintering could be important processing routes.
Monika Vilémová, Jiří Matějíček, Barbara Nevrlá, Maryna Chernyshova, Pawel Gasior, Ewa Kowalska-Strzeciwilk and Aleš Jäger
Tungsten is a prime choice for armor material in future nuclear fusion devices. For the realization of fusion, it is necessary to address issues related to the plasma–armor interactions. In this work, several types of tungsten material were studied, i.e. tungsten prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and by water stabilized plasma spraying (WSP) technique. An intended surface porosity was created in the samples to model hydrogen/helium bubbles. The samples were subjected to a laser heat loading and a radiation loading of deuterium plasma to simulate edge plasma conditions of a nuclear fusion device (power density of 108 W/cm2 and 107 W/cm2, respectively, in the pulse intervals up to 200 ns). Thermally induced changes in the morphology and the damage to the studied surfaces are described. Possible consequences for the fusion device operation are pointed out.
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Ileana Nicoleta Popescu, Ruxandra Vidu and Vasile Bratu
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