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.html (accessed May 28, 2018). Karner, Stefan. 1994. “The Soviet Central Administration of Prisoners of War: An Interim Report.” Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte , 42 (3), pp. 447–471. Kawano, Satsuki 河野さつき.2010. Nature’s Embrace: Japan’s Aging Urbanites and New Death Rites. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. Kiuchi, Nobuo 木内信夫. 1996. “Kyūsoren yokuryū gashū ~ moto rikugun hikōhei Kiuchi Nobuo 旧ソ連抑留画集~元陸軍飛行兵木内信夫 [Collection of Images of the Detention in the Former Soviet Union—Kiuchi Nobuo, Retired Air Corps].” Online: (accessed


The initial section of the article elaborates on diverse attitudes towards abortion, and specifies the number of abortions performed before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. The following section presents spatial characteristic of the performed abortions against the largest Russian administrative units. Regional conditioning has been analysed based on the number of abortions per 100 labours and number of abortions among women in labour age (between 15 and 49 years of age). The article also discusses the activity of non-governmental women organisations which aim at providing medical information and participate in the family planning initiatives. Finally, the article presents the rules and conditions of allowing to perform abortion and significant changes in Russian legislation on that issue.

ACTA MARISIENSIS. SERIA HISTORIA Vol. 1 (2019) ISSN (Print) 2668-9545 ISSN (Online) 2668-9715 DOI: 10.2478/amsh-2020-0005 THE DIPLOMATIC ACTION OF PIETRO QUARONI. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN ITALY AND THE USSR IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN 1944 AND 1945 Francesco Randazzo Associated Professor PhD, Perugia University, Italy, Abstract The present study approaches the subject of the diplomatic relation between Italy and the Soviet Union during 1944 and 1945 beginning with 27th May 1944 when Pietro Quaroni, a career

. October 1991: 3. Gryzunov, Sergei – Romanenko, Sergei (2012): Raspad Yugoslavii, “perestroichny” SSSR i nezavisimaya Rossiya. Contribution presented at the International Conference “Twentieth Anniversary of the Collapse of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia: New Findings and Lessons Learned.” MGIMO University, Moscow, 20 February 2012. Gus’kova, Yelena (ed.). (1993): Yugoslavskiy krizis i Rossiya: Dokumenty, fakty, kommentarii (1990–1993) . Moscow: Fond Yugoslavyanskikh issledovaniy i sotrudnichestva „Slavyanskaya letopis’”. Kandelj, Pavel (1992): Chto nam Balkani

-2003 . (Front Page Politics. Representing Societal Actors in Finnish Newspaper News 1987-2003.) Doctoral dissertation. Jyväskylä: University Printing House. Häkkinen, M. & Kankaanpää, S. (1995) Kuuden suomalaisen sanomalehden suhtautuminen Neuvostoliittoon Afganistanin sodan sytyttyä 27.12.1979-26.1.1980 . (The Stance of Six Finnish Newspapers towards the Soviet Union after the Start of War in Afghanistan 27.12.1979-26.1.1980.) Candidate’s thesis. University of Tampere. Immonen, K. (1987) Ryssästä saa puhua…Neuvostoliitto suomalaisessa julkisuudessa ja kirjat julkisuuden

, New Jersey 1971. Skilling G., Samizdat and an Independent Society in Central and Eastern Europe , Oxford 1989. Tomenko M., Oligarchija 2000: Ukrajina oligarchiczna - derżawa, jaku ja nenawydżu, “ Uniwersum”, 11-12 (85-86). [ Oligarchy 2000: oligarchy in Ukraine ]. Truman D. B., Te Governmental Process, New York 1953. Woslenskij W., Nomenklatura. Gospodstwujuszczij klass Sowietskogo Sojuza, Moskwa 1999 [„ Nomenklatura ” - terminology in Soviet Union ].


Language use is the consequence of certain dynamics in people’s lives. It is obvious that translation implies, even etymologically, movement, mobility, exchange. These phenomena are more topical than ever nowadays, in the age of globalization. In the present essay, I analyze the translation of identities in the work of Oksana Marafioti, a contemporary writer of Roma origins who emigrated from the Soviet Union to the United States of America. Her memoir American Gypsy is an effort to trans-late towards a multiple, volatile, fluid identity where the languages spoken by Marafioti lead to belongings and rejections. The author records, in exquisite wording, the painful process of translating from a culture to another culture, from a language to another language.

), pp. 249-277. Lieven, A. (1994), The Baltic Revolution. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, Yale University Press, New Haven and London. Nau, H.R. (2011), ‘Ideas have consequences: The Cold War and today’, International Politics, 48 (4/5), pp. 460-481. Snyder, J. (2011), ‘The domestic political logic of Gorbachev’s new thinking in foreign policy’, International Politics, 48 (4/5), pp. 562-574. Stoner-Weiss, K., McFaul, M. 2009. Domestic and International Influences on the Collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) and Russia’s Initial Transition to


Discourse in this paper is represented by the totality of texts (Koller, 2004, p. 18) covering events in former Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Georgia and the Baltic countries. Over 100 texts have been collected from the most popular Russian newspapers, Argumenty i Fakty and Komsomol’skaia Pravda, between 2004 and 2010 in order to compile a “discourse of Russian satellites.” Even though the contemporary Russian press avoids the totalitarian habits of Soviet times such as monoglossia, dysphemisms (language of insults), sanctions and social commands, it still attempts to exercise control over the formation of readers’ opinions. The Russian press tries to channel the reaction of their audience toward disapproval of independent nations. The objective of this article is to summarize those narrative techniques which generate negative responses toward sovereign countries of the former Soviet Union. These techniques, which are called “strategies for discrediting opponents,” include sourcing favorable and unfavorable opinions, humorous framing, ironic statements and constructing a negative background. The means of control are subtle, but they are no less effective than through direct coercion.

camp is illustrated by witnesses’ testimonies. The tour is accompanied by a general overview of the Gulag system and the stories of Czechoslovak, Hungarian, and Polish citizens arrested in the Gulag. The of Siberia (in 2009, 2011, and 2013), aiming to map what has remained of the abandoned Gulag camps in those areas. Keywords: Gulag, Stalin, Soviet labour camps, virtual tour, Dead Road, Transpolar mainline Salekhard – Igarka, barracks, prisoners, Soviet Union, 3D artefacts The virtual tour of the Gulag is a unique way of learning about what Soviet corrective