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The present special issue of Perspectives on Federalism reflects on the nature and characteristics of solidarity within a supranational context, it explains what solidarity has meant so far in the EU, how much solidarity we had during the crisis, what type of solidarity is needed and how to build it. It focuses on the new economic governance and its solidarity mechanisms during and after the economic crisis but tackles other related fields such as its impact on services of general economic interest or the European budget, as well as other areas where solidarity is also discussed such as the free movement of persons.
This monographic issue has its origin in the International Conference “Solidarity in Hard Times. Solidarity and the European Social Model in times of economic crisis” organized by the University Institute for European Studies (IDEE) on 11-12 June 2015 in Madrid, within the Jean Monnet Network MoreEU (“More Europe to overcome the crisis”).
While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.
Christian values. For the abuse of Christian values rhetoric, see, for example, www.vlasteneckenoviny.cz/?p=196214 (accessed 2/6/2018). The societies in these countries are divided. In the Czech Republic, there have also been the strongest civic protests against governmental policies since the fall of Communism, as well as subcultures promoting solidarity. Apart from the NGOs (such as People in Need, Amnesty International, Diakonie, Charita, Adra) who have been long-term helping both inside the country and abroad, new initiatives were established, such as Hate Free
The purpose of this article is to focus on the main prerequisites for the increasing nationalism among some of the Member States in the European Union and its impact in terms of solidarity, law, and security. In recent years, a number of events and processes have unlocked the growth of nationalism and the increase of its public support as a response to the fear of replacing the values and identity of European societies. For example, the disproportionate migratory pressures "woke up" in some European societies a legitimate fear for their national identity. It is now the time to offer legal mechanisms that are flexible enough for sharing security and finding a balance between the national and European interest in order to avoid a revival of extreme nationalism