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Risk factors as a result of unhealthy nutrition in the adult population in slovenia with regard to sociodemographic variables

Abstract

Introduction: In this research, we carried out an analysis of risk factors due to precarious nutrition among the adult population in Slovenia and correlated the risks with biological and sociodemographic variables.

Methods: Descriptive and quantitative methods were applied. The data were collected by a structured interview on a sample of 1,193 adults from Slovenia. The biological and sociodemographic variables were then correlated with particular risk factors. The data was analysed using a statistical analysis program SPSS.

Results: It was found that only 4.7% of the population practice healthy nutritional diets, 22.5% can be considered as acceptable and 62.8% of the diets were classified as unhealthy. The most frequent risk factor is due to insufficient intake of grains, fish and vegetables as well as too much fried food and beverages with added sugar and red meat. In finding the correlations between biological and sociodemographic variables and risk factors, we found some correlations. The results also show that unhealthy nutrition is more frequent among the population with below average material standards and lower educational levels, people living in smaller communities, the young, people with high BMI, those living in eastern regions of Slovenia and students.

Conclusion: The results indicate that more effort should be made to target activities towards those groups where several risk factors were found and develop a complex approach to developing healthy nutritional life styles.

Open access
Health Literacy of a Sample of Portuguese Elderly

Abstract

This article presents the results of a study developed within the scope of the Project Health Literacy: a challenge in and for the elderly, funded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. It tried to evaluate the metric qualities of the Newest Vital Sign Test (NVS, Copyright © Pfizer Inc.) applied to elderly; evaluate the degree of health literacy of a sample of elderly Portuguese people; get to know the association between the degree of health literacy and some sociodemographic features, the general health state, and quality of life. It was conducted a quantitative study with 433 adults over 65 years of age, mostly female, and with heterogeneous levels of education. The instrument used was a battery of tests in order to assess the degree of health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), and the quality of life (WHOQOL). The NVS proved to be a reliable and sensitive to changes due to various demographic characteristics instrument. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (80%) showed a level of low health literacy, meaning that only 20% of respondents will be able to interpret and use effectively information related with health. Gender, educational attainment, age and marital status, as well as the perception of the elderly on their general health state and quality of life, proved to be variables that affect significantly the level of health literacy of participants. These results point to the urgent need to enhance health literacy in the elderly population, in general, and among the most vulnerable groups, in particular.

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Determinants of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient in the multiethnic population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

analyses (n = 24). Definitions of sociodemographic variables Data were obtained on tehsil and rural or urban origin of the participants. Self-identified tribal affiliation was grouped into a primary Pashtun caste ( zaat/biradari ) such as Khattak, You–safzai, and Mohmand. Information was gathered from the participants regarding their literacy and years of schooling. Literate participants were defined as those who had basic ability to read or write or were able to sign their name. We relied on self-identified occupations of participants, which were later recoded to

Open access
Urban resident perceptions of the impacts of tourism development in Zimbabwe

., 2015 ) for tourism development, an unwillingness to work in the tourism industry, and hostility towards tourists ( Prayag et al., 2013 ). Therefore, Ap (1992) proposes the adoption of a social exchange theory that has been widely used in analysing tourism perception studies to date. The theory underscores the importance of conducting a beneficial exchange between tourism development and the residents. Elsewhere in the extant literature, sociodemographic variables have been found to influence the perceptions of residents with regards to the way in which they

Open access
Depression Literacy among First-Year University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

-demographic variables and D-Lit Bangla questionnaire. Sociodemographic variables included age, gender, marital status, residence, and name of the department of the respondents. D-Lit-Bangla consists of 20 items that specifically extract the knowledge about depression symptomatology, impact of depression and about its management. The D-Lit Bangla was validated by Arafat et al. in 2017. The reliability of the D-Lit Bangla was measured by Cronbach’s alpha, which was found to be 0.77, reflecting acceptable internal consistency. Face validity, content validity and construct validity

Open access
Childlessness – psychological consequences of decisions taken while experiencing infertility

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the results of original research into psychological consequences for women choosing intentional childlessness as a way of coping with infertility. The study included 87 women who decided to remain childless. Tools used in the study were: the original Attitudes towards Own Infertility Scale; the HDS-M Scale (Zigmond, Snaith); the original Scale for Assessment of Hope as an Emotional State; the Satisfaction with Life Scale SWLS (Diener et al.); the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (SES). Significant correlations were found between variables included in the study were found. The analysis comparing psychological variables with sociodemographic variables showed that only the length of time since diagnosis is related to the level of hope. The analysis comparing childless women with those undergoing infertility treatment revealed statistically significant differences in the level of acceptance of one’s infertility (higher in childless women) and in the perception of social support and its types (women undergoing infertility treatment perceived a higher level of support) The cluster analysis indicated that there are three characteristics on which the effectiveness of coping with infertility depend. The conclusions of the study are extremely important in the process of preparing preventive psychology programs for women who make a conscious decision to remain childless.

Open access
Environmentally Sustainable Apparel Acquisition and Disposal Behaviours among Slovenian Consumers

Abstract

Fibre production and textile processing comprise various industries that consume large amounts of energy and resources. Textiles are a largely untapped consumer commodity with a strong reuse and recycling potential, still fibres and fibre containing products ends up in landfill sites or in waste incinerators to a large extent. Reuse and recycle of waste clothing results in reduction in the environmental burden. Between 3% and 4% of the municipal solid waste stream in Slovenia is composed of apparel and textiles. This exploratory study examines consumer practices regarding purchase and the disposal of apparel in Slovenia. Data were collected through structured online survey from a representative random sample of 535 consumers. Responses to online questionnaire indicated the use of a variety of textile purchase and disposal methods. The influence of different sociodemographic variables on apparel purchase, disposal and recycling behaviour was examined. Moreover, the differences in the frequency of apparel recycling between consumers with and without an apparel bank available nearby were explored. This research was conducted, since it is crucial to analyse the means by which consumers are currently disposing their textile waste in order to plan the strategies that would encourage them to further reduce the amount of apparel sent to landfills.

Open access
The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

Abstract

The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger kickboxers.

Open access
Impact of Interdialytic Weight Gain (IDWG) on Nutritional Parameters, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients

Abstract

Introduction. The amount of interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) considering body weight is of great importance in hemodialysis patients. In general practice, patients are asked to get standard weight between two hemodialysis sessions. However, it should be individualized considering patient’s weight. We aimed to determine the association between the IDWG and the nutritional parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life.

Methods. Thrity-two patients receiving hemodialysis at least for one year were enrolled into the study. Patients were monitored for 12 consecutive hemodialysis sessions; and the arithmetic mean of IDWG was calculated. IDWG% was calculated in accordance with patients’ dry weight. Data of patients with IDWG<3% (Group I) and IDWG≥3 (Group II) were compared. Sociodemographic variables, laboratory, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, Subjective Global Assessment Scale and SF-36 Quality of Life Scale were applied to evaluate the patients.

Results. 59.4% (n=19) and 40.6% (n=13) of patients were included in Group I and Group II, respectively. In Group II, albumin (p=0.02), potassium (p=0.02), phosphorus (p=0.04), nPCR (p=0.03), physical function (p=0.04), role limitations caused by physical problems (p=0.04), general health (p=0.03), physical quality of life (p=0.04) scores were significantly higher. A significant correlation was detected between IDWG and physical and mental quality of life, total score SF-36, albumin, total protein and the potassium values.

Conclusions. Patients with an IDWG ≥ 3% have better nutritional parameters and quality of life scales. The limiting of IDWG to 1-2 kg, ingoring patient weight may give rise to malnutrition and a reduced quality of life.

Open access
Quality of Life Indicators of University Students in Hungary

Hungarian dialysis patients. J Psychosom Res , 58, 103-110. Rethelyi, J., Berghammer, R., Kopp, M. (2001). Comorbidity of pain-associated disability and depressive symptoms in connection with sociodemographic variables: results from a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Hungary. Pain , 93(2), 115-121. Skrabski, A., Kopp, M., Rozsa, S., Rethelyi. J. (2004). A koherencia, mint a lelki és testi egészség alapvető meghatározója /Coherence as a basic decisive factor of physical and mental health. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika /Mental

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