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This study examines the influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 300 National Youth Service Corp members were randomly selected in the five divisions of Lagos State with ages ranging from 18 to 30. Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and t-tests. The results show that there is a significant joint influence of sex, age, ethnicity and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions (r2 = 0.90; P <.01]; male participants are more susceptible to entrepreneurial intentions than their female counterparts [t = 26.46, P <.01] and that Youth Corp members with a high self-efficacy rate significantly higher on entrepreneurial intentions (t = 25.09, P <.01]. Based on these findings, the study recommended that a self-efficacy programme should be included in the school curriculum so as to enhance entrepreneurial intentions among fresh graduates and, by so doing, reducing the high rate of unemployment in society. It was also recommended that future studies should use a larger sample and explore experimental methods so as to see if a causal relationship can be established among variables.


Objective: The study aimed to establish the mean DMFT of adults over the age of 20 years in Bulgaria. We also aimed to determine any association between demographic factors, such as age, gender, general health status etc, and dental caries.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Data was collected from a randomly chosen representative sample of 1741 adults aged over 20 years, from 13 Bulgarian cities and villages. From these 1741 adults, 105 (6.03%) refused to complete the questionnaire. A total of 1636 (93.97%) were included in the survey, of which 766 (47%) lived in villages and small towns and 870 (53%) in the capital city Sofia and other cities. The average age of the sample was 39.6 years. 894 (54.6%) were male and 742 (45.4%) were female. Each participant completed a questionnaire about demographic and socio-demographic status. Afterwards, a clinical examination was carried out. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA were used to test for statistical significance of qualitative variables (p<0.05).

Results: For the whole study sample, mean DMFT was 17.8 (SD 7.98). There was a statistically significant association between DMFT and age. Women had higher DMFT values (18.6 ± 7.66)) than men (15.2 ± 7.91). There was a link between DMFT and general health too. People with excellent general health had DMFT 11.5 (SD 6.39), whereas people with bad general health had DMFT 21.4 (SD 8.16).

Conclusion: Mean DMFT score of adults in Bulgaria is 17.76 teeth. There is an association between some demographic factors and DMFT. Women, people with bad general health and older people have higher values of DMFT and need more care from dental health services.

-32 Arndt V., T. Stürmer, Ch. Stegmaier, H. Ziegler, G. Dhom, et al., 2001, Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and latestage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: A population-based study , J. Clin. Epidemiol. , 54 , 719-27 Avis N. E., S. F. Assmann, H. M. Kravitz, P. A. Ganz, M. Ory, 2004, Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: Assessing the influence of menopause, health status and psychosocial and demographic factors , Qual. Life Res. , 13 , 933-36 Avis N. E., K. W. Smith, S. McGraw, R. G. Smith, V. M. Petronis, et al., 2005, Assessing

, Zaman TK, Lestrel PE. 2010. Age at menarche of university students in Bangladesh: secular trends and association with adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors. J Biosoc Sci 42(5):677–87. Hossain MG, Sabiruzzaman M, Islam S, Hisyam RZ, Lestrel PE, Kamarul T. 2011. Influence of anthropometric measures and sociodemographic factors on menstrual pain and irregular menstrual cycles among university students in Bangladesh. Anthropol Sci 119(3):239–46. Houston AM, Abraham A, Huang Z, D’Angelo LJ. 2006. Knowledge, attitudes, and consequences of menstrual


Dementia caregiving is a unique and the caregivers faces extreme challenges which affect care-giver’s mental health adversely. Family caregiving towards elderly individuals with dementia is becoming widespread. The study aims to evaluate the mental health status of dementia family caregivers and some related factors that affect their mental health condition.

Present cross sectional study includes a total of 134 family caregivers. Socio-demographic and caregiving related data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect data on caregivers’ mental health traits (measured in terms of level of stress and anxiety), level of psychosocial distress, support they provided and the care recipient’s behavioural symptoms associated with dementia. Mean age of the caregivers was 61.64 years (SD 13.89) while the care recipients were above 70 years of age. Mean age of care recipients was 75.46±7.26 years. Alzheimer’s type of dementia was the most common type found among them. Higher level of stress and anxiety was prevalent among the caregivers. Level of education, being a spouse, psychological distress has strong relationship with caregivers’ mental health condition. Behavioural abnormalities of care recipients were also responsible for poor mental health conditions of caregivers. Family caregiving is becoming the most suitable option nowadays and it associated with caregivers’ psychological distress and other health issues. Present study also revealed distressed mental health conditions of caregivers. Since care recipients remain dependent mostly on their family care-givers, it is necessary that caregivers should be fit mentally as well as physically. Therefore, proper support and management is needed for caregivers in near future.



Smoking rates in Serbian adults are among the highest in Europe. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of smoking and smoking-related behaviours of Belgrade University students depending on their sociodemographic characteristics and faculty group.


A cross-sectional study was carried out among 2,608 Belgrade University students (59.6% female) in 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to the opportunity sample to collect the data describing students’ smoking habits and attitudes across all 30 faculties of the university.


30.5% of students reported smoking: 26.4% of medical, and 31.1% of non-medical ones. Smoking rate among female students was 31.2% vs. 29.5% among males. Age (p=0.001), relationship (<0.001) and employment status (p=0.002) had statistically significant influence on smoking status, while the differences in smoking status between genders (p=0.141) and medical and non-medical group of students (p=0.066) were not statistically significant. The highest percentage of students started smoking during high school (66.2%). As the most common reason to start smoking, respondents cited peer influence (36.5%). 44.3% of students who smoked unsuccessfully tried to quit smoking.


To combat high smoking prevalence among a younger population, the formal education of students about the adverse impacts of smoking should be integrated in all active anti-smoking programs. Medical students, as future healthcare professionals, can play an important role in smoking rates reduction among both younger and general populations, if properly trained and educated about smoking prevention and cessation techniques.


Research has shown that ATMs provide an extremely useful service to customers but the machine is characterized by several service quality inadequacies, and at times it can be very frustrating to use. Consequently, this study investigated socio-demographic factors and service quality dimensions as determinants of ATM usage in Lagos State, Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to collect data from bank customers who use ATM and the data were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM) and multiple regression. The results from the analyses reveal that socio-demographic factors, such as age, education, and income, influence ATM usage, while gender and occupation do not influence ATM usage. The study also revealed that all the service quality dimensions identified in the study have a significant positive influence on ATM usage. When the joint effect of socio-demographic factors and service quality dimensions on ATM usage was assessed, it was found that service quality had a greater influence on ATM usage than socio-demographic factors.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of implants with different implant-abutment connection systems, in patients who had two kinds of implants implanted. In total, 240 implants were implanted - 91 implants with conical abutment Morse connection, and 149 with an internal hexagonal connection. During the follow-up period of 3 years and 10 months, the percentage of lost implants with a conical implant-abutment connection was 1.1%. Regarding the implants with hexagonal implant-abutment connection, this figure was 0.7%. Our work shows that there is a need for further research on the survival of dental implants. In this, the influence of other factors should be explored that are related both to the specific implant treatment, as well as to socio-demographic factors


Introduction. The midwife profession is an independent profession, entitled to provide part of the services of gynaecology and obstetrics. Women whose pregnancy goes in a physiological way may benefit from midwife-led services as part of the benefits refunded by the National Health Fund. This model makes it possible to maintain continuity of care, considered a beneficial solution in the area of mother and child health.

Aim. Determination of the scale of the phenomenon of midwife-led antenatal care in Poland and comparison of groups of women actively using the Internet who chose midwife-led or doctor-led antenatal care.

Material and methods. The survey was carried out in February-March 2018. The research tool was an electronic questionnaire. Questions regarding socio-demographic factors of pregnancy, antenatal education, labour, intervention during labour and labour experience described by women-Internet users were used for the purpose of the analysis. The Chi-square test of independence, the Fisher’s Exact Test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to develop the results.

Results and conclusions. The prenatal care of midwives is not a common phenomenon in Poland. Groups of women who decide on a different form of midwife-led or doctor-led antenatal care differ mainly in the material situation. Women choosing midwifeled antenatal care more often attend antenatal classes and prepare a birth plan. In order to popularize the model of antenatal care provided by midwives, attempts should be made to study the motivation of women who decide on an alternative antenatal care.


Historical and social historical researches have extensively explored the social role and history of the Hungarian nobility and aristocracy, but the present situation of the descendants of the former traditional élite has been overlooked by contemporary sociological studies. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive picture concerning the young descendants of the Hungarian aristocratic families living in Hungary at the turn of the 21st century. The results confirm that the examined group has a very good chance of reaching a higher status within the society despite all the disadvantages their parents and grandparents suffered during the communist era. In other words, they possess all socio-demographic factors which make a higher position likely. This advantageous socio-demographic position is interacting with the values and goals transmitted in family upbringing, namely acquiring a diploma and the knowledge of foreign languages. The religious, Christian, and family-centric values also played a considerable role in their education. Among the young descendants of the former aristocratic families, we can distinguish a group which creates a strong informal network and has preserved its special aristocratic identity and filled it with a renewed content.