, which feed more pronounced nationalistic positions and anti-Muslim attitudes among citizens in Eastern Europe. Social–psychologicaltheories contribute to a better understanding of this trend. Empirically, we draw our data from the European Social Survey (ESS 2014).
The Puzzle: Islamophobia Without Muslims?
What exactly do we mean by Islamophobia? First, it is to state that Islamophobia is a highly contested term ( Allen 2010 ). A great deal of attention in the research field is dedicated to the subtle differences (and flawed boundaries) between Islamophobia
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, 2015 ; Tanriverdi et al., 2007 ; Zazryn et al., 2003 ). Therefore, when compared with their everyday risk of injury, the health-related side effects of doping may not seem as serious.
A more positive doping tendency was found in athletes who perceived that doping was prevalent in kickboxing, and this is consistent with previous studies ( Kondric et al., 2011 ; Rodek et al., 2013 ). This relationship can be largely explained by the socialpsychologicaltheory of self-categorization ( Turner and Oakes, 1986 ). According to this theory, people adopt the norms
societies are (almost) without Muslims. Their explanation is based on data taken from the European Social Survey (2014) and analogously recounting socialpsychologicaltheories which deal with prejudice and stereotyping, they convincingly argue that lack of “real-life experience” is a supporting factor to negative stereotypes about Muslims and, on the contrary, “individuals who are in contact with outside groups, make friends with people from other ethnicities, and perceive these contacts as convenient are less likely to feel prejudice toward Muslims.” Further, the media