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Nowadays, it seems that all disciplines have to pretend being “scientific” in order to ensure their credibility. But the “social sciences”, which aim at a better knowledge of the Human regarding what makes him its own kind, are they really sciences? Pretending to be so, do they not expose themselves to be qualified as “non-scientific” by the most critical minds in their time, just as did Karl Popper about psychoanalyses and theses on the psychological selfishness? In turn, is it possible to pretend that the “social sciences” are not sciences while stating that their dignity requires them to ask for another paradigm, a much more subtle one? The present contribution will try to answer to these questions. It will start with the proposal to replace the inappropriate name of “social sciences” by another one, much more respectful of the methods which should be theirs, which would be “disciplines of the subject”.

References Akpınar, M., & Kaymakcı, S. (2012). Ülkemizde sosyal bilgiler öğretiminin genel amaçlarına karşılaştırmalı bir bakış [A comparative view of basic aims of social sciences teaching in our country]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi [Kastamonu Education Journal] , 20(2), 605–627. Aktekin, S. (Ed.) (2017). Sınıfında yabancı öğrenci bulunan öğretmenler için el kitabı [A handbook for teachers whose classes include foreign students] . Ankara: T.C. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Çelik, S. (2017, May). In the discussion on “doing diversity” in education, how do English


The literature on creativity has often focused on the analysis of artists and scientists. The ability to generalize these findings to respective professional sub-disciplines is examined. In particular, the present study addresses the generalizability of the personality profile of creative scientists to creative social scientists. Autonomy was found to be the most important personality feature for creativity in social sciences. These results suggest the importance of fostering an autonomous working style.

., Teresevičienė, M., Žydžiūnaitė, V., & Kaminskienė, L. (2012). Development of Generic Skills in Self - Learning Process in Higher Education School. Applied Research in Health and Social Sciences: Interface and Interaction, 1(9), 17-28. Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas (2006). Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas. Jakubė, A., & Juozaitis, A. M. (2012). Bendrųjų kompetencijų ugdymas aukštojoje mokykloje. Metodinės rekomendacijos. Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas. Jovaiša, L. (2007). Enciklopedinis edukologijos žodynas. Vilnius: Gimtasis žodis. Inovatyvių dėstymo ir studijavimo

1 Introduction It is a well-known fact that publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) differ considerably from those observed in scientific, technical, and biomedical fields. SSH scholars publish their research in a much wider array of both international and domestic publication channels, including monographs and edited books; they frequently opt for other publication languages besides English; and their rate of research collaboration and ensuing co-authorship is considerably lower ( Hicks, 2004 ; Nederhof, 2006 ). In recent years

1 Introduction This article is an extended version of my invited Luojia Lecture for Wuhan University on 30 th October 2018 with the same title as above. I use this opportunity to go deeper into some of the topics of the lecture by combining the perspectives and updating the results of four recent studies. One of them ( Sivertsen, 2016a ) presents the patterns of internationalization and discusses the criteria for research assessment in the social sciences and humanities (SSH). The second study ( Sivertsen, 2018a ) focuses on the use of language for internal and


New national and international societies that examine sports have been created and developed in Europe as well as on other continents. These societies, which examine the complex phenomena, issues, and questions concerning sports as seen from the different scientific points of view, are rooted in two main research directions: the natural sciences on the one hand, and the social sciences on the other.

The authors of the paper point to the significant and ongoing development of the social sciences of sport. In particular, the authors discuss the development of the sociology of sport, philosophy of sport, psychology of sport, pedagogy of sport, history of physical culture, sports and Olympics, the organization and management of sport, social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, social relationships associated with sports training and tactics, as well as the humanistic theories of Eastern martial arts.

The authors have listed several national, continental, and international scientific organizations that unite representatives of the aforementioned disciplines. However, the authors’ main focus is on theoretical and organizational assumptions of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport, an organization founded in 2009.

The society’s main objectives are to unite the particular social sciences of sport in one organized and scientific body (while maintaining the existing differences between the sciences); to enable the annual debate and exchange of views on the substantive and methodological matters; as well as to provide joint scientific publications connected with common work of the group and with the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research.

The authors discuss the research and publishing activities of the Polish Society for Social Sciences of Sport, introducing the organization as an example of any future organization that could cooperate with the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport.


This paper provides a discussion on various aspects and features of the concept of the social sciences of sport. The concept originated recently and was formulated in 2007 during the preparations for the establishment of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport. The Society, however, was not formed until the beginning of 2009. Among other things, the concept includes such academic disciplines and fields as sport sociology, sport philosophy, sport psychology, sport pedagogy, the history of physical fitness, sport and Olympism, sport politics and the international conditions of sport, sport economics, sport organizations and management, the social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, the social relations regarding training and sport tactics, as well as the humanistic theory of martial arts. The author presents a growth in interest of different social aspects and issues of sport at the beginning of the twentieth century. He indicates the significant development of sport during the second half of the last century, especially towards its end and at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The social sciences of sport was also underlined as the reason for the creation of a new, dynamically developing cognitive paradigm. According to the Author, it is mainly connected with the institutional and functional, organizational and methodological conditions of the social science of sport which specifically complemented the educational and research standards for the academic community around the globe. The Author emphasizes the social sciences of sport’s distinctive and autonomous part in sport science due to its specific and detailed merit-related issues and methodological foundations. He also stresses that not only does natural science (particularly biological science) play an important role in sport science, but also that the social science of sport has a vital and fundamental value in it. In his opinion, natural (biological) science in relation to sport refers mainly to one person’s organism, whereas social science refers, for the most part, to the axiological, cultural, symbolical, esthetic, ethical perception of physical exertion. Moreover, research conducted in this field encompasses the professional, pragmatic, utilitarian, cathartic, escapist, ludic, hedonistic, epistemological and recreational aspects of differently perceived professional sports or sport for all. The Author points out that the amount of available courses - lectures, classes, seminars - in the field of social sciences themselves, as well as in the social science of sport, is being gradually reduced, which undoubtedly lowers not only the knowledge, but also the perception, interpretation, explanation and comprehension of sport in the context of the humanistic approach. Furthermore, he indicates this trend’s influential role in the development of common-sense thinking, which makes opinion-forming and valuable comments on the subject of sport undergo cognitive deformations. He points out its negative influence on the listeners, audience and fans’ consciousness, opinion and attitude, as well as on the interpretative context of the observed events - not only ones associated with sport, but also those happening beyond it, for instance in social, family, peer, professional, political and religious life.

the gross domestic product in Kenya. M.Sc. Degree Thesis submitted to School of Business, University of Nairobi. Musgrave, R.A. (1959). The Theory of Public Finance. McGraw Hill, New York. Oluseyi, A.S., Olasehinde, T.J. & Eweke, G.O. (2017). The impact of money supply on Nigeria Economy: A comparison of mixed data sampling (MIDAS) and ARDL approach. EuroEconomica, 2(36), 123-134. Omodero, C.O. & Worlu, C.N. (2018). Monetary policy and oil revenue in Nigeria: pre and post Effect analysis. Covenant Journal of Business & Social Sciences (CJBSS), 9(1), 87

Academic Performance. Anthropologist, 20(3): 553-561 Korir, D. K. & Kipkemboi, F. (2014). The Impact of School Environment and Peer Influences on Students’ Academic Performance in Vihiga County, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 4, No. 5(1) pp 240-251. Latif, E and Miles, S (2011). The impact of Assignments on Academic Performance. Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, Volume 12, Number 3, 2011 pp 1-11 Lee, J. S. (2014). The Relationship between Student Engagement and Academic Performance: Is It a Myth or Reality? Journal