Mobilising knowledges across a geography creates opportunities for transitions to smart systems. Publics in a geography are consequently able to form their perspectives around a system and align potential benefits with their needs. Intelligent transport systems are an example of smart living and EVs are cited as an alternative technology that are key to their application. This conceptual paper uses EVs as an example to demonstrate how knowledge mobilisation relating to such technologies can better cater to a geography’s needs. Unfortunately, current EV studies focus on a rural-urban binary. Thus, this conceptual contribution reflects on a study in Cornwall, UK, to reveal the heterogeneous influences on rural EV-related perspectives. This heterogeneity manifests both in particular locations and across cases. Overall a suite of transferrable participatory methods to improve rural knowledge mobilisation is outlined.
smart manufacturing, it is necessary to share data and IT resources between logistics operations and manufacturing companies. This will allow the entire supply chain to provide better efficiency and effectiveness, so that global supply chains will be leaner, smarter, and more agile as a whole, cohesive, interconnected system ( Ślusarczyk, Haseeb and Hussain, 2019 ). 2.2 Implementation of Internet of Things The adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) both enables and enhances such technology as smartsystems, by connecting them (usually via the cloud) to a company
A system to support maintenance, approached with respect to particular maintenance actions. The modelling of a smart system to support maintenance of multi-role aircraft. Diagnostic- properties determining accomplishment of an air operation. A standard maintenance cycle. A maintenance programme targeted at the multi-role aircraft fleet.
The advancement of technology makes smart devices and their applications ever more popular and complex. Tourism is an area where varied and numerous services are required, hence this diversity resulted in a multitude of smart applications and smart systems designed to enhance tourist‘s satisfaction. The present paper investigates the concept of Smart Tourism in the scientific literature and how it can be applied for mobile applications, with particular focus on the most popular Smart Tourism apps for Bucharest. Following the analysis of these apps according to the theoretical framework applied, recommendations for improvement of Bucharest Smart Tourism mobile applications are provided.
Power delivery infrastructures are overstrained and suffer from overaged conditions, not only in the developed, but also in the more industrialized countries. The aim of the smart grid is to provide a more reliable and efficient electric power grid. Condition assessment is an essential and effective part of the reliability for electric grid components; also, it reflects the physical state of the electricity asset in a generation, transmission, distribution, and consumers sides. In this paper, condition assessment of electric grid assets will be discussed and illustrated within the context of smart grid principle. In addition, the proposed condition assessment architecture and the objective of condition assessment for smart grid equipment will be explored and analyzed. Moreover, the potential benefits of such smart system as compared to the traditional power system will be presented. This paper aims to add significant contribution to a smart grid theory.
Introduction. The aim of this study was to characterise the whole body dynamics and upper and lower joint kinematics during two common fencing steps: the lunge and the fleche. Material and methods. Two male competitive epee fencers were studied. Kinematics data were collected at 120 Hz (BTS Smart system) and ground reaction forces were measured at 120 Hz (Kistler platform). The resultant centre of gravity and end segment velocities were calculated. Temporal events were referenced to the horizontal ground reaction force. Time domain linear joint velocities were extracted. Results. At the whole-body level, the resultant centre of gravity velocity was higher during the fleche (2.64 and 2.89 m/s) than during the lunge (1.94 and 2.21 m/s). At the joint level, the wrist and elbow attained their peak velocities earlier than the proximal joint for both the lunge and the fleche for both athletes. Conclusions. The sequence of peak segmental velocities followed a distal to proximal sequence for both fencing steps.
Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability
The research deals with improvement of methods and systems of controlling integrated power systems (IPSs) on the basis of intellectualization of decision-making support. Complex analysis of large-scale accidents at power facilities is performed, and their causes and damages are determined. There is substantiated topicality of building condition knowledge-bases as the foundation for developing decision-support systems in power engineering. The top priorities of the research include developing methods of building a knowledge base based on intensity models of control actions influencing the parameters of power system conditions and introducing the smart system into information contours of the automated dispatch control system (ADCS), as well as assessing practical results of the research. To achieve these goals, the authors apply methods of experiment planning, artificial intelligence, knowledge presentation, mathematical simulation, and mathematical statistics as well as methods of power systems studying. The basic research results include regression models of a power system sensitivity to control actions, methods of building a knowledge base based on the models of sensitivity matrices, a structure of the smart decision-support system, a scheme of introducing the decision-support system into the operating ADCS environment. The problem of building a knowledge base of the dispatch decision-support system on the basis of empirical data resulted from calculating experiments on the system diagram has been solved. The research specifies practical efficiency of the suggested approaches and developed models.
The Kinematics of Trunk and Upper Extremities in One-Handed and Two-Handed Backhand Stroke
The aim of this study was to present kinematics of trunk and upper extremities in tennis players who perform one-handed and two-handed backhand strokes. The study aimed to address the question of whether one of those techniques has some important advantage over the other. If so, what makes it superior?
The study included 10 tennis coaches with average coaching experience of 9 years. The coaches were asked to hit 15 one-handed and two-handed backhands. The tests were carried out in a laboratory. A sponge ball was used in order to protect the measurement equipment. Video motion analysis was carried out using BTS SMART system; images were recorded with 6 cameras with a rate of 120 frames per second. The analysis of both backhand strokes focused on the second phase of the stroke (acceleration).
The use of an eight-element model of human body for description of upper body motion in both techniques revealed kinematic differences in how both backhands are performed. The two-handed backhand was performed in closed kinetic chain with 8 degrees of freedom, whereas the one-handed backhand involved an open kinetic chain with 7 degrees of freedom. Higher rigidity of upper extremities which are connected with trunk in the two-handed backhand, contributes to an elevated trunk effect in this stroke. This is confirmed by higher component velocities for racket handle, which result from trunk rotation in the two-handed backhand and a negative separation angle in the two-handed backhand at the moment of contact of the racket with the ball.
The study does not provide a clear-cut answer to the question of advantages of one technique over the other; however, it reveals dissimilar patterns of driving the racket in both techniques, which suggests the need for extending the analysis of techniques of both backhands with additional kinematics of tennis racket in consideration of measurements of ball velocities.
Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.
Material and methods: 24 basketball players from the II Division participated in the study. The measurements employed a Kistler force plate and a BTS SMART system for the motion analysis. Each study participant performed three countermovement jumps with arm swings. Leg stiffness in the countermovement phase was determined from the slope of the ground reaction forces curve, with respect to the coexisting height of the greater trochanter of the femur. The decline in the gravitational potential energy of the centre of mass during the countermovement phase is partially accumulated in the form of potential elastic energy through the stretched musculotendinous units, and consequently contributes to the jump height.
Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between leg stiffness and a decline in the potential energy during the countermovement phase. The relationship between leg stiffness and the jump height was not statistically significant.
Conclusions: The distribution of measurements may suggest the presence of local maximums, with their locations representing a value of leg stiffness that allows for high values of changes in the potential energy and the jump height to be obtained. Therefore, the presence of a specific value for leg stiffness that would be the most favourable for the accumulation of potential elastic energy is likely. However, this study cannot unequivocally confirm this fact, and the confirmation of the above statement will require further experimentation.