Background: It is beneficial for gymnasts to train key lumbopelvic musculature to decrease or prevent low back injury. This study compares lumbopelvic exercises and yoga on lumbar muscle endurance, lumbopelvic stabilization, abdominal strength and balance in adolescent female gymnasts and the effect on low back pain. Material/Methods: 13 participants were randomly allocated to a lumbo-pelvic or yoga group intervention and performed specific exercises for 6 weeks. Biering-Sorensen Test, Lumbopelvic Control Test, Side Bridge Test, and Star Excursion Balance Test were conducted on the participants before and after the 6-week intervention and low back pain logbooks were completed. Results: The Biering-Sorensen Test was significantly greater results for the lumbopelvic group compared to the yoga group. Both groups had significant changes over time with the Lumbopelvic Control Test but no group difference. Both groups had significant improvement with the Side Bridge with the yoga group benefitting more on the left. Out of the six fully completed logbooks, the yoga group showed less occurrence of low back pain compared to the lumbopelvic group. Conclusions: Yoga and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises are equally effective in developing lumbar muscle endurance, lateral stability and front-on stability for young non-elite gymnasts. This is important as they are under-represented in research but overrepresented in participation. This study sets the basis for further research on the incidence of low back pain in young gymnasts and the effects of age-appropriate exercises as a preventative matter.
In the present study, experiments were conducted in a large-scale flume to investigate the issue of local scour around side-by-side bridge piers under both ice-covered and open flow conditions. Three non-uniform sediments were used in this experimental study. Analysis of armour layer in the scour holes around bridge piers was performed to inspect the grain size distribution curves and to study the impact of armour layer on scour depth. Assessments of grain size of deposition ridges at the downstream side of bridge piers have been conducted. Based on data collected in 108 experiments, the independent variables associated with maximum scour depth were assessed. Results indicate that the densi-metric Froude number was the most influential parameter on the maximum scour depth. With the increase in grain size of the armour layer, ice cover roughness and the densimetric Froude number, the maximum scour depth around bridge piers increases correspondingly. Equations have been developed to determine the maximum scour depth around bridge piers under both open flow and ice covered conditions.
Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Ezequiel Rey, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Alejandro Sal de Rellán-Guerra, Ana Fragueiro-Rodríguez and Javier García-Núñez
sets x 30 s
3 sets x 40 s With vertical arm reach 3 sets x 40 s
3 sets x 50 s With vertical arm reach and one leg reached out 3 sets x 50 s
3 sets x 30 s
With one arm reached out vertically 3 sets x 40 s
With one arm reach and a lower leg lifted 3 sets x 50 s
3 sets x 30 s
With one arm reached out parallel to the floor 3 sets x 40 s
With a contralateral arm and the ipsilateral leg reached out parallel to the floor 3 sets x 50 s
3 sets x 30 s
With a futsal ball in hands reached out over head
present study was supported by the results reported by Hamlyn et al. (2007) and Nuzzo et al. (2008) , who demonstrated similar muscle activation in the external oblique between resistance exercises (squat and deadlifts) and core exercises (superman, sidebridge, stability ball exercises).
The squat is a dynamic movement and mimics daily living movements as well as sport movements better than isolated and isometric contraction of the core muscles using the prone bridge exercise. Based on the results of the present study, one might therefore argue that squats are