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.2478/v10202-011-0003-3. Brochmann, G & Hagelund, A 2012, Immigration policy and the Scandinavian welfare state 1945-2010, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Dolowitz, D & Marsh, D 2000, ‘Learning from abroad: the role of policy transfer in contemporary policy-making’, Governance, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 5-23. DOI: 10.1111/0952-1895.00121. Einhorn, ES & Logue, J 1989, Modern welfare states: politics and policies in social democratic Scandinavia, Praeger, New York. Elder, N, Thomas, AH & Arter, D 1988, The consensual democracies? The government and politics of the Scandinavian

Abstract

BACKGROUND – In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the use of the psychoactive plant khat is widely seen as a social and health problem exclusively affecting the Somali immigrant population. Several projects by governmental and municipal bodies and agencies have been initiated to reduce khat use and abuse within this target population.

AIM – This article analyses the khat abuse discourse as it is presented in evaluation reports describing projects initiated by the social services to reduce khat abuse.

METHODS – Six publicly available and formally evaluated khat projects conducted in the Scandinavian countries were found, and these evaluation reports were subjected to a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The “What’s the problem represented to be?” approach was used to generate questions, which were then applied to the material.

RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS – The problem of khat abuse is represented to be that it is the cause of unemployment, lack of integration and relationship issues among Somali immigrants. The analysis shows that the notion of cultural competence is used instrumentally to govern the target population and that the Somali immigrant group is exclusively targeted. This instrumental use of cultural competence partly places the onus on the “Somali community” itself to reduce khat use, which may engender stigmatisation of Somali immigrants in general. The author maintains that an overreliance on cultural explanations overlooks socioeconomic issues and that the focus should be on potentially problematic patterns of khat use rather than Somali immigrants in general.

Abstract

In the academic literature there seems to be consensus on irregular migration being a marginal phenomenon in the Scandinavian countries. The reason for this is found in the highly regulated labour markets and strict control migration regimes both internally and externally. The article addresses the ‘myth’ of the non-presence of irregular migration in Scandinavia. Firstly, we look at how irregular migration is framed academically; secondly, we analyze how irregular migration is conceptualized more broadly in the three countries, looking at the different political strategies relating to this conceptualization such as normalization, regularization and criminalization.

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Abstract

In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups of professionals: first, by teachers and librarians in the mid-fifties and, then, by intellectuals and performing artists in the late sixties. With a radically changed professional hegemony and a shifting media landscape, the role of media in children’s lives was described very differently during the period. However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms and values.

Abstract

As the main religion of Finland, but also of entire Scandinavia, Lutheranism has a centuries-long history. Until 1809 Finland formed the eastern part of the Swedish Kingdom, from 1809 to 1917 it was a Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire, and in 1917 Finland gained independence. In the 1520s the Lutheran Reformation reached the Swedish realm and gradually Lutheranism was made the state religion in Sweden. In the 19th century the Emperor in Russia recognized the official Lutheran confession and the status of the Lutheran Church as a state church in Finland. In the 20th century Lutheran church leaders preferred to use the concept people’s church. The Lutheran Church is still the majority church. In the beginning of 2015, some 74 percent of all Finns were members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. In this issue of Perichoresis, Finnish historians interested in the role of church and Christian faith in society look at the religious history of Finland and Scandinavia. The articles are mainly organized in chronological order, starting from the early modern period and covering several centuries until the late 20th century and the building of the welfare state in Finland. This introductory article gives a brief overview of state-church relations in Finland and presents the overall theme of this issue focusing on Finnish Lutheranism. Our studies suggest that 16th and early 17th century Finland may not have been quite so devoutly Lutheran as is commonly claimed, and that late 20th century Finland may have been more Lutheran than is commonly realized.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyze the contents of the articles published in the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism with special attention paid to texts describing tourist accommodation in its broadest sense. The list of references was collected in a survey of Taylor & Francis Online1 which includes online editions of the journal.

Abstract

Political commentary is a contested genre that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Scandinavian public debate, whereas the scholarly literature on it is still in an initial phase. In order to strengthen future research, the present paper suggests a two-dimensional matrix indexing the research on Scandinavian political commentary along the dimensions text/context and descriptive/evaluative. The matrix enables us to see more clearly what we already know and where we lack knowledge. It enables us to see how each category can be developed, the interplay among them, and the obvious lack of textual, evaluative approaches. The author argues that a joint, cross-disciplinary engagement is necessary if we are to adequately understand the potentials and problems of political commentary.

Abstract

AIMS - To investigate the lifetime prevalence and moderators of non-medical AAS use in the five Nordic countries. METHODS - We conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression using studies gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference checks. Included were 32 studies that provided original data on 48 lifetime prevalence rates based on a total of 233,475 inhabitants of the Nordic countries. RESULTS - The overall lifetime prevalence obtained was 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.4, I 2 = 99.5, P < 0.001]. The prevalence for males, 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7-4.8, I 2 = 99.2, P < 0.001), was significantly higher (Qbet = 40.5, P < 0.001) than the rate for females, 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4, I 2 = 90.5, P < 0.001). Sweden has the highest prevalence of AAS use: 4.4%, followed by Norway: 2.4%, Finland: 0.8%, Iceland: 0.7%, and Denmark: 0.5%. Country, sample type, and male sample percentage significantly predicted AAS use prevalence in a meta-regression analysis. No indication of publication bias was found. CONCLUSION - Though subject to some limitations, our fndings suggest that non-medical AAS use should be regarded as a serious public health problem in the Nordic countries.

Abstract

AIMS – To investigate the lifetime prevalence and moderators of non-medical AAS use in the five Nordic countries. METHODS – We conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression using studies gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference checks. Included were 32 studies that provided original data on 48 lifetime prevalence rates based on a total of 233,475 inhabitants of the Nordic countries. RESULTS – The overall lifetime prevalence obtained was 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.4, I 2 = 99.5, P < 0.001]. The prevalence for males, 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7-4.8, I 2 = 99.2, P < 0.001), was significantly higher (Qbet = 40.5, P < 0.001) than the rate for females, 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4, I 2 = 90.5, P < 0.001). Sweden has the highest prevalence of AAS use: 4.4%, followed by Norway: 2.4%, Finland: 0.8%, Iceland: 0.7%, and Denmark: 0.5%. Country, sample type, and male sample percentage significantly predicted AAS use prevalence in a meta-regression analysis. No indication of publication bias was found. CONCLUSION – Though subject to some limitations, our findings suggest that non-medical AAS use should be regarded as a serious public health problem in the Nordic countries.

Abstract

Due to increase in growth of real estate development, green certification systems are essential to ensure the well-being of society and environment. Green Building Councils are the main drivers that influence many factors related to development of green buildings, which includes certification, education, conference and other aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the tendencies of the development of green buildings in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries by analysing the Green Building Councils of the Baltic and Scandinavian Countries, and the number of certified green buildings in both regions. The literature review, comparative analysis, document analysis, and logical access methods have been used in the research. The countries are different from each other and their current and future priorities differ from each other as well. In the research process, it is important to lay some light on the several funds acquired by the regional Green Building Councils and their usage. The research results show that all the countries are working towards the development of green buildings but some countries perform better in the number of certified green buildings. The research results, including the number of green certified buildings, future plans of Green Building Councils, recommendations for future market analysis of green buildings, have already been approbated at the 59th International Scientific Conference of Riga Technical University “SCEE 2018” (Scientific Conference on Economics and Entrepreneurship) in Riga, Latvia.