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sequence repeat markers using whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). DNA Res. 16 : 187–193. Z hang , X., F. L i , Y. W ang , L. X u , M. L i and S. G an (2009): An optimized protocol for sequencing EST-PCR products in Eucalyptus . Genomics Appl. Biol. 28 : 535–543. Z hou , C., F. L i , Q. W eng , X. Y u , M. L i and S. G an (2010): Comparison between direct sequencing and poolcloning-based sequencing of PCR products in EST-SSR marker development in Eucalyptus. Mol. Plant Breed. 8 : 1 (doi:10.5376/mpb.cn.2010.08.0001).

. 2. Development of an integrated map from two outbred pedigrees using RFLP and microsatellite loci. Theor Appl Genet. 101(4): 594-605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001220051521 Cappa EP, J Klapste, MN Garcia, PV Villalba and SN Marcucci Poltri (2016) SSRs, SNPs and DArTs comparison on estimation of relatedness and genetic pa­rameters’ precision from a small half-sib sample population of Eucalyptus grandis. Mol Breeding. 36(7): 96-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-016-0522-7 Cheng J, Z Zhao, B Li, C Qin, Z Wu, DL Trejo-Saavedra, X Luo, J Cui, RF Rive

F. Li and S. Gan

, J., M. K athirvel , R. R. K umar , E. A. S iddiq and S. E. H asnain (2002): Genetic analysis of traditional and evolved Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties by using fluorescence-based ISSR-PCR and SSR markers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 : 5836–5841. N guyen , H. T. and X. W u (2005): Molecular marker systems for genetic mapping. In: The handbook of plant genome mapping: genetic and physical mapping, eds. K. M eksem and G. K ahl . WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KgaA, Weinheim, Germany. 23–52. O ttewell , K. M., S. C. D onnellan , G. F. M oran and D. C. P

wild germplasm and cultivated clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. by using microsatellite markers. Journal of Rubber Research 6(1): 36-47. LESPINASSE, D., M. RODIER-GOUD, L. GRIVET, A. LECONTE, H. LEGNATE and M. SEGUIN (2000): A saturated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea spp.) based on RFLP, AFLP, microsatellite, and isozyme markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100: 127-138. LEWERS, K. S., S. M. N. STYAN, S. C. HOKANSON and N. V. BASSIL (2005): Strawberry GenBank-derived and genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their utility with

Abstract

Six simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were developed from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the genus Larix. Based on evaluation with 49 L. kaempferi genotypes, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, and the expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity values were 0.225−0.694 and 0.201−0.656, respectively. The inbreeding coffcient (F IS) for all loci were less than zero except that LAReSSR85 was 0.4383. All the six EST-SSR markers were transferable to L. gmelini, L. olgensis var Koreana, L. principisrupprechtii and L. olgensis. BlastX analysis showed that five of the EST-SSRs were homologous to known genes. The six EST-SSR markers developed here can be valuable for biological applications in Larix.

Meloidogyne artiellia. Gene, 293(1–2): 191–198. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00756-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00756-4 [7] Ellis, J. R., Burke, J. M. (2007): EST-SSRs as a resource for population genetic analyses. Heredity, 99: 125–132 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6801001 [8] Fisher, M. C., Viney, M. E. (1996): Microsatellites of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 80(2): 221–224. DOI: 10.1016/0166-6851(96)02699-0 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-6851(96)02699-0 [9] Gregory, T. R. (2007): Animal Genome Size Database., http

Abstract

Several poplar species within a section, but also between sections, are cross-compatible, thus a high number of interspecies-hybrids occur naturally or have been artificially produced during the last 100 years. Very often, systematically kept records on the production or vegetative propagation of poplar hybrids and/or clones have not been available to date. Hence the origin of the poplar plant material used for the generation of hybrids or clones is not quite clear in many cases, thus making the differentiation between the clones a difficult task. Therefore, genetic markers are needed to clearly identify and differentiate the species and hybrids in the genus Populus, including both identification of existing clones and the breeding of new ones. One aspect of this study is therefore to develop molecular markers for the identification and differentiation of species, hybrids, and clones of the genus Populus.

simplesequence repeats (SSRs), Theor. Appl. Genet. 108 (3): 558-566. BRONDANI, R. P. V., C. BRONDANI, R. TARCHINI and D. GRATTAPAGLIA (1998): Development, characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97: 816-827. BUTCHER, P. A., S. DECROOCQ, Y. GRAY and G. F. MORAN (2000): Development, inheritance and cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers from Acacia mangium. Theor. Appl. Genet. 101: 1282-1290. CIPRIANI, G., G. LOT, W. G. HUANG, M. T. MARRAZZO, E. PETERLUNGER and R. TESTOLIN (1999): AC/GT and

References BÉRUBÉ, Y., J. ZHUANG, D. RUNGIS, S. RALPH, J. BOHLMANN and K. RITLAND (2007): Characterization of EST-SSRs in loblolly pine and spruce. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 251-259. BLACKET, M. J., C. ROBIN, R. T. GOOD, S. F. LEE and A. D. MILLER (2012): Universal primers for fluorescent labelling of PCR fragments - an efficient and cost-effective approach to genotyping by fluorescence. Molecular Ecology Resources 12: 456-463. BOTSTEIN, D., R. L. WHITE, M. SKOLNICK and R. W. DAVIS (1980): Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment

Ueno, A de Daruvar, A Kremer and C Plomion (2010) A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study. BMC Genomics 11:570. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-570 Gailing O (2013) Differences in growth, survival and phenology in Quercus rubra and Q. ellipsoidalis seedlings. Dendrobiology 70:71-79. https://doi.org/10.12657/denbio.070.008 Gailing O, S Kostick, O Caré and S Khodwekar (2018) Leaf morphological and ge­netic variation between Quercus rubra and Quercus ellipsoidalis: comparison of sympatric and parapatric populations