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The Use of Asymptotic Functions for Determining Empirical Values of CN Parameter in Selected Catchments of Variable Land Cover

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of asymptotic functions for determining the value of CN parameter as a function of precipitation depth in mountain and upland catchments. The analyses were carried out in two catchments: the Rudawa, left tributary of the Vistula, and the Kamienica, right tributary of the Dunajec. The input material included data on precipitation and flows for a multi-year period 1980–2012, obtained from IMGW PIB in Warsaw. Two models were used to determine empirical values of CN obs parameter as a function of precipitation depth: standard Hawkins model and 2-CN model allowing for a heterogeneous nature of a catchment area.

The study analyses confirmed that asymptotic functions properly described P-CN obs relationship for the entire range of precipitation variability. In the case of high rainfalls, CN obs remained above or below the commonly accepted average antecedent moisture conditions AMCII. The study calculations indicated that the runoff amount calculated according to the original SCS-CN method might be underestimated, and this could adversely affect the values of design flows required for the design of hydraulic engineering projects. In catchments with heterogeneous land cover, the results of CN obs were more accurate when 2-CN model was used instead of the standard Hawkins model. 2-CN model is more precise in accounting for differences in runoff formation depending on retention capacity of the substrate. It was also demonstrated that the commonly accepted initial abstraction coefficient λ = 0.20 yielded too big initial loss of precipitation in the analyzed catchments and, therefore, the computed direct runoff was underestimated. The best results were obtained for λ = 0.05.

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DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECT RUNOFF FROM REAL RAIN USING GIS ENVIRONMENT / STANOVENIE CHARAKTERISTÍK PRIAMEHO ODTOKU Z REÁLNEHO DAŽĎA S VYUŽITÍM PROSTREDIA GIS

Abstract

The selected SCS-CN method is used worldwide and adapted to the conditions of Slovakia. GIS environment provides an opportunity to simulate changes in land use, and then to calculate the total volume of water from the river and peak water flow in the river bed of the stream. The simulation was done for two rainfall events, 72 mm and 42.6 mm, which were measured in precipitation station in Jelenec (a village situated next to the area of interest). The calculation was made for 4 possible scenarios - current land use, forest, arable land and grassland and pasture. Culmination discharge and time of outflow from rainfall 72 mm for current land use were calculated using the NRCS method. The calculation of water runoff volume showed that similar values were measured for the rainfall of 72 mm and rainfall 42.6 mm in case of AMC-III. The highest values of water runoff volume were marked in the case of arable land in all calculations, the lowest one for forest. Comparison of designed stream cross section and calculated culmination discharge allowed us to determine the point of outflow from the river bed of the Drevenica stream.

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Runoff changes in areas differing in land-use in the blanice river basin - application of the deterministic model

příspěvku odvodňovacích soustav k průběhu povodní. VÚMOP, Praha. FELDMAN A.D. (Ed.), 2000: Hydrologic Modeling System HEC-HMS, Technical Reference Manual. USACE, Davis. FOHRER N., HAVERKAMP S., ECKHARDT K., FREDE H.G., 2001: Hydrologic response to land use changes on the catchment scale. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth , 26, 577-582. JENÍČEK M., 2007: Effects of land cover on runoff process using SCS CN method in the upper Chomutovka catchment. In Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Conference

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Assessment of two loss methods for estimation of surface runoff in Zaafrania urban catchment, North-East of Algeria

Engineering Research. Vol. 5. Iss. 7 p. 1283–1287. B hura C.S., S ingh N. P., M ori P.R., P rakash I. 2015. Estimation of surface runoff for Ahmedabad urban area using SCS-CN method and GIS, IJSTE. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. Vol. 1. Iss. 11 p. 2349–2784. C hu S.T. 1978. Infiltration during unsteady rain. Water Resources Research. Vol. 14. Iss. 3 p. 461–466. D u J., Q ian L., R ui H., Z uo T., Z heng D., X u Y., C h Y. 2012. Assessing the effects of urbanization on annual runoff and flood events using an

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Comparison of an Automated and Manual Method for Calculating Storm Runoff Response in Ungauged Catchments in Serbia

automatic removal of spurious pits. Journal of Hydrology, 106, 3-4, 211-232. Jovanović, S., 1989. Hydrology. Građevinski priručnik - tehničar 6, 11-181. IRO Građevinska knjiga, Beograd. (In Serbian.) Luchisheva, A.A., 1950. Practical Hydrology. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian.) Ludwig, R., Schneider, P., 2006. Validation of digital elevation models from SRTM X-SAR for applications in hydrologic modeling. Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, 2006, 339-358. Mishra, S.K., Singh, V.P., 1999. Another look at SCS-CN

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Stakeholder group consensus based on multi-aspect hydrology decision making / Skupinový konsensus zainteresovaných subjektů založený na multikriteriální metodě rozhodování. j. hydrol. hydromech., 60, 2012, 4; 22 lit, 6 obr., 8 tab.

environmental modelling process - A framework and guidance. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 , 11, 1543-1556. SINGH V. P., 1996: Kinematic Wave Modelling in Water Resources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. SOULIS K. X., VALIANTZAS J. D., DERCAS N., LONDRA P. A., 2009: Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13 , 605-615. ŠRAJ M., DIRNBEK L., BRILLY M., 2010: The influence of

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GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

, Davis, California. Vojtek M., 2014. Estimation of N-Year Maximum Discharges for the Vyčoma Stream (Hájovňa Slače Profile). In: Scientia iuvenis: Book of Scientific Papers . CPU, Nitra: 279–288. Yu B., 1998. Theoretical justification of SCS-CN method for runoff estimation. Journal of Irrigation Drainage Division (ASCE) 124: 306–310. Wilcox B.P., Rawls W.J., Brakensiek D.L., Wight J.R., 1990. Predicting runoff from rangeland catchments: A comparison of two models. Water Resources Research 26: 2401–2410. Zhan X.Y., Huang M.L., 2004. ArcCN

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Land use changes in the last half century and their impact on water retention in the Šumava mountains and foothills (Czech Republic)

afforestation on water regime in Jizera Catchments, Czech Republic. Acta Geophysica 60(4), 1120-1142. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-012-0046-4. [28] Schulze, R. E., Schmidt, E. J. & Smithers, J. C. (1992). SCS-SA User Manual PC Based SCS Design Flood Estimates for Small Catchments in Southern Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal. [29] Shadeed, S. & Almasri, M. (2010). Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine. Water Science and Engineering 3(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.01.001. [30

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The Use of Multi-Criteria Analysis for Identifying Areas Sensitive to Land Degradation and water Retention

, 30(3), 394–415. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2009.11.003. Simeonakis, E., Calvo-Cases, A. & Arnau-Rosalen E. (2007). Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain. Environ. Manag., 40, 80–94. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-004-0059-0. Singh, P.K., Bhunya, P.K., Mishra, S.K. & Chaube U.C. (2008). A sediment graph model based on SCS-CN method. J. Hydrol. , 349(1–2), 244–255. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.11.004. Soulis, K., & Dercas N. (2007). Development of a GIS-based spatially distributed continuous hydrological model and its first

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