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The article describes the life cycle of a training project in a research and development unit, from setting the training target, through analyzing the needs of the group, establishing workshops’ programs and logistics, up to the evaluation and implementation support. The role of human capital has been presented in the article, thus the need for training organization has been demonstrated to improve quality of work. The article also describes characteristics of the training market, defining types of projects addressed to representatives of the most often trained groups in the research and development unit, like professionals, managers and research workers. Methods and tools aiding the training system analysis and monitoring have also been introduced in the text with a goal to reflect customer, employer, and trainee satisfaction. A process of raising qualifications of employees was described at the Institute of Aviation. It has been found that internal trainings from the subject matter of “project management” are the best solution for research and development centers.
In the article the author has attempted to realise the following goals:
1) identifying and critical assessment of the share of expenditure on research and development (R&D) in the gross domestic product (GDP) borne by business entities concentrated in four sectors (enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit institutions) and jointly in all sectors. This meter is treated as an indirect measure of the level of managerial activity in shaping the research and development policy,
2) checking the thesis that R&D expenditure are changeable and differ in the particular Member States and does not give a clear positive picture of the systematic and dynamic growth of research and development activity in these countries.
The article was developed using the following research methods: critical-cognitive analysis of the literature; statistical and comparative analysis of the “Eurostat” empirical material; the projection.
The statistical and comparative analysis of the secondary empirical material “Eurostat” illustrating the share of expenditure on research and development in the gross domestic product was used to check the thesis. The results of the analysis confirm the rightness of the research thesis.
In this article the author verifies the thesis that the commonness of investing in research and development activity (R&D) in enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union is variable and diverse. The basis of such verification is an statistical-comparative analysis of the results of the empirical researches on innovative trends in EU companies. The study was conducted in February 2015 by TNS Political & Social in 28 Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and the United States. Analysis of the commonness of investing in R&D in enterprises is carried out in the following 3 dimensions:1) the commonness of investing in R&D according to the country, 2) the commonness of investing in R&D according to the category of enterprises, 3) the turnover invested in R&D according to the country. The results of the studies confirmed the research thesis.
Andreja Nekrep, Sebastjan Strašek and Darja Boršič
This paper focuses on investment in research and development as a factor of labour productivity and economic growth. Our analysis confirms the link between expenditure for research and development (expressed in % of GDP) and labour productivity (expressed in the number of hours worked) based on selected data for EU Member States in the period 1995-2013. A causal link between variables of the concave parabola was confirmed, and the value of expenditure for research and development (2.85% of EU GDP) maximising productivity (per hour of work) was determined based on the examined data. In accordance with these findings, EU’s target of reaching 3% of GDP spent on research and development to be achieved by 2020 seems in support of reaching maximum productivity in the EU.
Montenegro and other Western Balkan countries are characterized by historical mortgages, political instability, commenced but uncompleted structural reforms and unfavourable economic situation, which all contributed to their lagging behind other EU member states. In addition to this, these countries have been faced with a low level of investment in research and development, unfavourable educational structure, low level of innovation and a lack of awareness about the importance of research and development in modern economies.
The economic and political situation led to their determination to become a full EU member, which requires the fulfilment of specified criteria, implementation of structural reforms and “catching up” with other EU member states. Investment into research and development are found to be the key factor for fulfilling their objective – EU membership.
Knowledge is a corporate resource, being grounds for initiating activities, which is important in a dynamic economy. The difficulties related to obtaining tacit knowledge, related primarily to experience and observation of the knowledge employee (Mendryk, 2011), encourage the companies to use tools supporting knowledge management and location. This article attempts at designing a dedicated, strategic knowledge map for a research and development department in a manufacturing company. Based on the reference works, the detailed characteristics of specific sources of knowledge in a manufacturing company and tools supporting the process of converting the tacit knowledge into explicit one, for example, the knowledge maps, were devised. Then, a strategic knowledge map model was designed for the research and development department (hereinafter abbreviated as SKM – R&D) in the manufacturing company, comprising the following components: (1) fields of knowledge, (2) internal and external processes in the R&D department, and (3) sources of knowledge. Then, a practical implementation of the SKM – R&D model was presented.
The objective of this research is to empirically compare the management that is most suitable for radical innovation with that needed for incremental innovation. The relationship between the results of research and development and management styles was surveyed using a questionnaire. Respondents included research and development leaders in Japanese manufacturing, with special attention given to the differences between radical innovation and incremental innovation. Results verified, in an integrated way, the management and leadership factors, taking into consideration the differences arising from the object under analysis and the environmental factors.