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In this paper we extend previous results on the effective thermal conductivity of liquid helium II in cylindrical channels to rectangular channels with high aspect ratio. The aim is to compare the results in the laminar regime, the turbulent regime and the ballistic regime, all of them obtained within a single mesoscopic formalism of heat transport, with heat flux as an independent variable.
This paper presents a theoretical model of the hydroelectromagnetic thruster (electromagnetic three-phase induction seawater pump), which was developed from a semi-space model for an infinity conductor, where the electrically fluid - seawater occupies a semi-space, bordered by an ideally ferromagnetic wall. At the fluid surface, it is found a web of currents having density vector oriented in the direction of Oy axis, and fluid movement - considered a translational motion at constant velocity - is directed along the Ox axis. In this regard, for certain arrangements of three phase windings inductors, were performed calculations in order to estimate the forces, powers and efficiency for electromagnetic three-phase induction pump, having the seawater as induced fluid. Following the analysis of the traction force expression, it was found that it is possible to achieve a hydroelectromagnetic thruster, as a rectangular channel with the specific configuration of the three-phase windings, enabling to develop the electromagnetic traction forces for seawater as fluid induced conductor, forces comparable with propellers systems
A complete three-dimensional and single phase model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells was used to investigate the effect of using different channels geometry on the performances, current density and gas concentration. The proposed model was a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations were solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition was required at the internal boundaries between cell components. This computational fluid dynamics code was employed as the direct problem solver, which was used to simulate the three-dimensional mass, momentum, energy and species transport phenomena as well as the electron- and proton-transfer process taking place in a PEMFC. The results showed that the predicted polarization curves by using this model were in good agreement with the experimental results and a high performance was observed by using circle geometry for the channels of anode and cathode sides. Also, the results showed that the performance of the fuel cell improved when a rectangular channel was used.
In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.