Black silicon layers were formed on silicon substrate by the surface structure chemical transfer method and by anodic etching method. Properties of microstructure of formed layers were experimentally studied by the electron microscopy methods (TEM) and characterized by statistical, Fourier and multifractal methods. Theoretical structures with defined fractal properties and surface roughness were generated and their microstructure properties were evaluated. Obtained results were used for the explanation of the real structure development during the forming procedure. By using of this approach, we study the correlation of roughness and fractality with optical properties. Black silicon layers were also investigated by using of Raman scattering method. Optimized theoretical model describing the 1st order of black Si Raman scattering profile was constructed and used for evaluation of the biaxial tensile stress introduced during etching procedure.
In this work black silicon (b-Si) samples were prepared by anodic (electrochemical) etching of p-type silicon substrate in solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF). We studied influence of anodic etching conditions (etching time, electrical potential and current) on the spectral reflectance and Raman scattering spectra. Optical properties of b-Si structures were experimentally studied by UV-VIS (AvaSpec-2048) and Raman (Thermo DXR Raman) spectrometers. B-Si layer thickness of formed substrate were determined by using SCOUT software. Effective medium approximation theory (Looyenga) was used in construction of the reflectance model. Influence of the deformation of crystal lattice introduced during the substrate etching was studied by Raman scattering method. Teoretical model of the 1st order Raman scattering profile was constructed by using pseudo-Voigt function and the profile parameters were extracted. The values of biaxial tensile stress were estimated by using optimized Raman profile parameters.
., & Radzewicz, C. (2014). How to measure diffusional decoherence in multimode rubidium vapor memories? Optics Communications, 317 , 1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2013.12.020 12. Acosta, V. M., Jarmola, A., Windes, D., Corsini, E., Ledbetter, M. P., Karaulanov, T., Auzinsh, M., Rangwala, S. A., Kimball, D. F. J., & Budker, D. (2010). Rubidium dimers in paraffin-coated cells. New Journal of Physics, 12 (8), 83054. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/12/8/083054 13. Chrapkiewicz, R., & Wasilewski, W. (2012). Generation and delayed retrieval of spatially multimode Ramanscattering in warm
Zn1-xNixO aerogel nanopowders with nickel concentration in the range of 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.25, were synthesized by the sol-gel processing technique and post-annealed in air at 500 °C. Structural, vibrational, thermal and magnetic properties of the as-prepared and annealed Zn1-xNixO powdered samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman scattering, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In addition to the ZnNiO phase, XRD analysis revealed the formation of a secondary NiO phase when the Ni content was greater than or equal to 10 %. The TEM images confirm that the particle size is in the range of 20 nm to 40 nm, in accordance with XRD results, and the particles are well dispersed. Raman scattering measurements confirm the wurtzite structure of the synthesized Zn1-xNixO nanopowders and show that intrinsic host-lattice defects are activated when Ni2+ ions are substituted to the Zn sites. Room temperature ferromagnetic order was observed in all of the samples and was strongly dependent on the Ni content and thermal annealing. These results indicate that the observed room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnNiO may be attributed to the substitutional incorporation of Ni at Zn sites.
The authors have deposited the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by radio frequency inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF ICP PECVD) method. The investigated DLC films with different sp3 fraction content were deposited on polished and textured silicon substrates. The sp3 fraction content of the deposited DLC films was ranging from 35 % to 70 % and was estimated from acquired Raman scattering spectra (excitation wavelength: 325 nm and 514.5 nm). The measurements of field emission characteristics were carried out in diode configuration. Emission properties of the DLC films were calculated from Fowler-Nordheim plots. The calculated electric field enhancement factor β was ranging from 56 to 198 for the DLC films deposited on polished substrates and from 115 to 445 for films deposited on textured substrates. The surface of the DLC films was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after field emission measurements. The acquired SEM images reveled that the activation of field emission from the DLC films is connected with generation of structural damage to the DLC films.
Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD) method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.
The (V,Al) co-doped ZnO nano-structured powders (Zn0.9-xV0.1AlxO, where x = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) were synthesized via the sol-gel technique and their structural and optical properties were investigated. The effect of Al concentration on the structural and optical properties of the Zn0.9-xV0.1AlxO nanopowders was studied using various techniques. The XRD patterns indicate that the samples have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure. The crystallite size increases with increasing the Al content and lies in the range of 23 to 30 nm. The lattice strain, estimated by the Stokes-Wilson equation, decreases when Al content increases. SEM and TEM micrographs show that Zn0.9-xV0.1AlxO powders are the agglomeration of nanoparticles having spherical and hexagonal shapes with dimensions ranging from 20 to 30 nm. FT-IR spectra show a distinct absorption peak at about 500 cm-1 for ZnO stretching modes and other peaks related to OH and H2O bands. Raman spectra confirm the wurtzite structure of the Zn0.9-xV0.1AlxO nanoparticles. The direct band gaps of the synthesized Zn0.9-xV0.1AlxO nanopowders, estimated from the Brus equation and the crystallite sizes deduced from XRD, are around 3.308 eV. The decomposition process of the dried gel system was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).
Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Artery Wall: Parameters Related to the Progression of Atherosclerosis
Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy is used to follow key structural and biochemical changes associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Arteries from WHHL-MI rabbits are examined using a 3 channel NLO microscope that can simultaneously monitor the coherent anti-stokes Raman scattered light (CARS), the two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the second harmonic generation (SHG) from a sample. Distinct differences in the nonlinear optical signals are observed that correlate with the age of the vessel and the presence of atherosclerotic plaque. These differences are attributed to the changing extracellular matrix and the increased lipid deposition associated with plaque development. The capability of NLO to perform 3D sectioning in thick highly scattering vessels in order to visualize structural details of the artery wall and highlight vessel pathology is demonstrated. These features make NLO a potentially valuable tool to help understand the progression of atherosclerosis.
Raman spectroscopy is a most often used standard technique for characterization of different carbon materials. In this work we present the Raman spectra of polycrystalline diamond layers of different quality, synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition method (HF CVD). We show how to use Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of the Raman bands to determine the structure of diamond films as well as the structure of amorphous carbon admixture. Raman spectroscopy has become an important technique for the analysis of CVD diamond films. The first-order diamond Raman peak at ca. 1332 cm−1 is an unambiguous evidence for the presence of diamond phase in the deposited layer. However, the existence of non-diamond carbon components in a CVD diamond layer produces several overlapping peaks in the same wavenumber region as the first order diamond peak. The intensities, wavenumber, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of these bands are dependent on quality of diamond layer which is dependent on the deposition conditions. The aim of the present work is to relate the features of diamond Raman spectra to the features of Raman spectra of non-diamond phase admixture and occurrence of other carbon structures in the obtained diamond thin films.
controlled synthesis of highly dispersed vanadia supported on silica SBA-15, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 95 , 339-349. Hess C. (2006). Characterization of the synthesis and reactivity behavior of nanostructured vanadia model catalysts using XPS and vibrational spectroscopy. Surface Science, 600 , 3695-3701. Davidson G. (2005). Spectroscopic Properties of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds. Royal Society of Chemistry, 37 , 114-172. Liao Q., Li M.Y., Hao R., Ai X.C., Zhang J.P., Wang Y. (2007). Surface-enhanced Ramanscattering and DFT computational studies