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The Impact of a Commune’s Planning Tactics on the Landscape of Suburban Areas

Abstract

The article aims to present selected transformations of landscape that follow changes in land use designated by suburban municipalities. Currently, under the pressure of suburbanization, suburban rural municipalities are gradually being transformed into urban-style residential units. Modern and dense residential constructions shape the local landscape by introducing irreversible changes. Directing this process seems to be an important aim for local authorities, which should responsibly apply planning tools and carry out policies which minimize negative changes to the landscape and promote spatial order. In this respect, the paper presents the relationship between the spatial strategy adopted by a municipality and the transformations in the landscape for two selected municipalities: Dywity and Barczewo.

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European Funds for Rural Areas and Regional Convergence of Agriculture in Poland

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to assess the phenomena of sigma convergence of labour productivity in agriculture and other sectors of rural economy in Polish regions during 2003 – 2014 in the context of the amount of European funds designated for agriculture and rural areas. European supprt was compared to the Gross Added Value of agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishery.

Materials and methods: The subject literature and statistical data received from the Agricultural Modernization Agency and the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office were used. The empirical data regarding the level of agriculture in regions as well as the data on the resources utilised from the European Union were examined in order to assess the correlation between them and the phenomenon of regional sigma-convergence.

Results: The study confirms the sigma convergence of the Gross Value Added per units of funding obtained from the European Union Budget and different level of sigma convergence of GVA / PE in regions.

Conclusions: Sigma convergence assessment of the Gross Value Added per person employed in regions shows that in the analyzed period three phases could be distinguished: convergence (2003 – 2008), divergence (2008 – 2010) and stagnation (2010 – 2014).

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The Role of Spatial Planning in the Investment Process in Poland and Slovenia

Abstract

This paper is based on the hypothesis that: “Spatial planning should regulate spatial development, taking into account the public and private interests, and enabling the development of public and private investments in construction projects. Investors may be discouraged from construction on account of too small or too excessive a number of spatial implementation conditions (land use guidelines) in particular, where an adequate professional basis has not been provided”

This hypothesis has been verified by analyzing spatial planning processes in Poland and Slovenia, two countries whose centrally-planned economies (in Slovenia, this was called the socialist market economy) have been transformed into functioning market economies.

The main aim of this study was to discuss the significance of spatial planning documents in the investment process and their contribution to the preservation of spatial order. Special emphasis was placed on planning documents that allow construction in areas not covered by a local zoning plan. In Poland, the relevant document is the outline planning permission for development of land or property. Investors are required to prepare extensive source documents that are used by the (local) authorities for issuing outline permissions for the development of land and of property. Due to a lengthy procedure for obtaining outline planning permission, development is delayed and, as a consequence, investors are discouraged from building. In Slovenia, the relevant spatial plans at the local level include the municipal spatial plan, which set out the spatial implementation conditions and the detailed spatial plan. The spatial implementation conditions are the criteria and conditions for intervention as determined by the spatial planning document, in accordance with which the acquisition of building permits under regulations on construction is prepared. These can have a significant impact on the performance of the investment project. In some cases, such conditions even discourage investors from building, because they are not on an adequate professional basis.

The three examples discussed in this paper show that both too general and too precise spatial implementation conditions (land use guidelines) are unfavorable for investors and validate the hypothesis.

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Spatial Distribution of Investment Incentives and the Impact of New Incentive System for Less Developed Regions in Turkey

Abstract

Regional policy has been on the agenda of Turkey since the First Five-Year Development Plan (1963–1967), and so far, Turkey has put into practice to overcome regional disparities, one of the most important is regional-sectoral incentives. Thus, the incentive system, which has undergone many changes until today, has been revised and updated in 2012. Although this incentive system has been put into practice for increasing the investment in eastern provinces/regions, development gap between eastern and western regions still stands. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the success of the new incentive system and to determine whether the new investment incentive system is effective in shifting investments from developed regions to backward regions in Turkey. In the study, the regional distribution of investment incentives during 2001–2016 and the effect of new investment incentive system to change the distribution of investments in favor of less developed provinces/regions will be examined. By using investment incentives data, regional distribution of investments will be revealed with the help of map-graph technique. The study found that both the share of incentive certificates and the share of the investment amount have increased during the period of 2001–2016 in the less developed provinces. From this point of view, it is possible to say that the new investment incentive system has a positive impact on increasing the share of incentives in these provinces.

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Analysis Of Land Use Transformation Potential In Spatial Management

Abstract

The current system of spatial planning in Poland does not provide an effective and efficient tool for controlling planning decisions at a level higher than local. The result is an unrealistic approach to adopting development policies. Nowadays there is strong competition among local governments to attract investors, which results in excessive designation of investment areas and, consequently, an imbalance between supply and demand on the real estate market. An extremely important factor from the point of view of local authorities is also the financial burden on government budgets related to the implementation of the provisions of previously adopted policies. An improper spatial development policy can therefore generate costs without delivering the expected results, due to the lack of demand for the offered resources.

A step in the right direction in optimizing how the spatial policy process is shaped may include conducting analyses and forecasts to support the decision-making process. Such analyses are needed both in terms of the amount of areas designed for each type of land use as well as their spatial distribution. Our considerations are focused on the second aspect. Analysis of land use transformation potential can be used in spatial management by selecting areas most where land use is most likely to change. The paper presents the simplified mechanisms of such analyses which can be adopted by the use of cellular automata. The final potential of an area is affected by variables such as the neighborhood, accessibility and suitability. As a result of the integration of these variables, it is possible to determine land use transformation potential. These considerations relate to the MOLAND (Monitoring Land Use/Cover Dynamics) research project and works on the development of the Metronamica decision support system, conducted in Western Europe.

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Marketing Potential of Websites of Rural Tourism Facilities in Poland

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to assess the marketing potential of websites of rural tourism facilities’ in Poland.

Materials and methods: It was assumed that the marketing potential of a website provided the basis for placing it in global popularity rankings. The study involved 1000 paid domain websites. Each website was analysed using four tools which yielded values of selected indices, including Serpstat Visibility, Alexa Global Rank and SimilarWeb Global Rank.

Results: Almost half of the websites of rural tourism facilities’ obtained 0 or 1 point in the Open Page Rank index evaluation. For 764 websites from the analysed set, the Serpstat Visibility index value was not available, while in the remaining cases it was very low. The websites either reached distant positions in Alexa and SimilarWeb rankings or were not included in them at all.

Conclusions: The adopted research model does not allow for absolute assessment of the actual marketing potential of websites. However, the study confirmed that it was not used.

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Analysis of Cross-Border Regional Homogeneity and Its Effects on Regional Resilience and Competitiveness
With the Western Transdanubian region (HUN) and Burgenland (AUT) as examples

Abstract

The resilience of a region may affect how it reacts to economic crises and exogenous shocks. In a complex study, it is not sufficient merely to have knowledge of all the macro-indices of the regions, but it is also necessary to study internal micro-structures. This study introduces the regional homogeneity index, using a novel approach and as yet unused indicators by means of the example of two neighbouring NUTS 2 statistical regions. The results can be useful for understanding the regions’ economic development. The methodology and indicators created may also be suitable for European regional pilot research projects.1

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Towards a Theory of Stakeholders’ Perception of Tourism Impacts

Abstract

This paper summarizes theoretical knowledge related to an issue of assessment of tourism impacts on a tourism destination. This paper pays special attention to stakeholders’ perception of tourism impacts as a popular approach to tourism impacts assessment in recent decades. Its aim is to map the key research focused on classification and assessment of tourism impacts in relation to regional stakeholders, using a summary and comparison of various research approaches over the past decades. The paper uses an integrative literature review of 28 papers published in top-rated journals which can be considered as a relevant sample of the research effort from the beginnings of 1990s. It compares commonly used approaches to the classification and assessment of tourism impacts through a comparative content analysis and points out their common characteristics and differences. The secondary aim is to define research implications as a theoretical and methodical basis for future research aimed at this topic.

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Urban Networking vs. Smart City

Abstract

Taking into consideration that the development of strong partnerships involving local citizens, civil society, the local economy and the various levels of government is an indispensable element for an Integrated Sustainable Urban Development, our paper is focusing on the role of an appropriate urban networking in the relationship with the objectives of a smart city. In this context, the Romanian good practices - as Oradea city - are worth to mention. In compliance with Europe 2020 Strategy’s objectives there will be discussed the particularities of urban networking in order to strengthen the resilience of cities, and to ensure synergies amongst the investments supported by European Structural and Investment (ESI) funds. According to economic literature the urban network is not a funding instrument but a way for cities to share feedback on the use of these new approaches. The estimated results of our research are related to the conclusion that the urban networks act as a forum for capacity building and exchange between the cities pioneering new techniques and developing integrated investments.

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The Evolution of the Regional Development Policies

Abstract

Kuklinski (Kuklinski A. 1987), realized, from an epistemological perspective, a history of the international and interdisciplinary progress in matters of regional policy.

According to the authors’ conception, an international scientific movement in the domain of regional studies refers to: the examination of the regional studies carried out in different countries to identify the diversity of ideological and intellectual attitudes, the techniques and the motivations.

Today this phenomenon must be considered from a new perspective in the framework of a global analysis of the different scientific schools which perceive regional studies in particular and original ways.

A scientific school can be defined as all the activities of a well-organized team, capable of producing, in the course of a long period, a series of relatively important and diversified innovations in three domains:

  1. a)theory and research methods;
  2. b)empirical knowledge of the existing reality;
  3. c)creation of tools and policies in order to transform this reality according to the development goals accepted by a determined epoch and in a determined region.

The main feature of a scientific school is represented by its capacity to innovate a series of theoretical and empirical studies (Kuklinski A. 1987).

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