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Review of Policies for Promotion of Electric Vehicles

Abstract

This paper presents the review of policies and their possible effects for promoting the use of electric vehicles. Suggestions on faster implementation of electric vehicles can also be identified within best practices from abroad. Various countries have adopted different policies to promote the use of electric vehicles which include fiscal or other forms of incentives that would persuade people into buying electric vehicles. Possible effects are hard to determine since many variables affect a consumer’s purchasing decisions. That is why identification of policies that have proven to be successful and those that have not achieved projected results and should be improved is necessary. Research has shown that countries with most promising policies for promotion have the biggest share of electric vehicles and invest the most in their promotion (fiscal incentives).

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Accessibility of Real Estate by Transportation as a Determinant of the Development of Suburban Real Estate Markets – Case Study

Abstract

The aim of this article is to show the accessibility of real estate by transportation as a factor that significantly determines the decision to acquire it. Direct access to a public road, or access to an internal road that provides communication with the public road, are a factor affecting the value of real estate. In addition, this factor is taken into account in the process of changing the function of the area, especially in determining zoning and land use. The decision of purchasing real estate often depends on transportation accessibility, because it has an impact on developing the selected plot.

Suburban real estate markets, as markets exposed to particularly strong investment pressure, develop depending on the influx of external investors and the local transportation network. Here, the smaller the distance from the city center, the greater the building concentration; nevertheless, it is still important to improve transportation links and create a well-developed local transportation network. The provision of access to main roads on the rapidly growing market is in the interest of local authorities implementing spatial policy. It is also a challenge for real estate investors taking on the initiative in the scope of transforming land use.

The analysis of the impact that transportation accessibility has on the development of the real estate market was conducted on the example of two selected suburban communes bordering the city of Olsztyn - Dywity and Stawiguda. Transactions on the local real estate market entered into during a period of five years were subjected to analysis. The results of the research revealed concentrations of transactions of real estate located on the outskirts of the city or in areas well-communicated with Olsztyn. The conducted research also indicates that, due to the activity of investors, a network of internal roads creating a complex structure was formed.

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Planned stagnation? The economic plan vs. reality in the Czechoslovak railway sector of the 1970s and 1980s

Abstract

The article deals with the state of the railway sector in a centrally planned economy in Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s. It compares the “to-be” position of the Czechoslovak state railway with the real situation in the railway sector. The Czechoslovak railway sector changed a lot during the two analysed decades – it lost its superior position to road transport and showed evident signs of stagnation, even though a big part of economy was dependent on the railway transport. The position of railway transportation had weakened within the two decades and the country lost its stage by stage initiative in modernisation of the railway sector. The railway sector lost its pre-1970s sovereignty in transport and had become more dependent on the general situation of the Czechoslovak economy. It was the reason for stagnation as a result of development of the railway sector in late socialism in Czechoslovakia.

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Energy Consumption of Rail Baltica Project: Regional Aspects of Environmental Impact

Abstract

Research purpose. The high-speed railway (HSR) construction project in the Baltic States is the largest joint infrastructure project since the restoration of independence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Rail Baltica (RB) is considered as the most energy-efficient project having the lowest environmental impact. However, the issue of energy consumption of the project was not sufficiently addressed either in the investment justification of the RB construction or in the relevant research works regarding the project. The aim of the current research is to determine the indicators of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity of the Latvian section of RB, since they are the key factors of the quantitative assessment of sustainability.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Critical analysis of the academic research works and reports of the official international organizations dedicated to the topic of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of HSR was conducted prior to the calculation of the above-mentioned indicators. The method of calculation based on International Union of Railways (UIC) was used in order to conduct the cluster analysis within the framework of current work. The main points considered are electricity consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and level of passenger and freight demand. Statistical databases of UIC and International Energy Agency were used.

Findings. The calculations carried out by the authors of the given article demonstrate substantial figures of CO2 emissions intensity for Latvian section of the project related to the train load rate and traffic intensity which is evened out only by the CO2 emissions factor in Latvia.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. On this basis the authors present the directions for future research required for the development of the effective strategy for the Latvian Republic with the aim of achieving the increase in the RB project’s ecological efficiency.

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How can people be convinced to buy electric cars? – case of Slovenia

Abstract

Electric cars represent a promising energy-and carbon-efficient alternative to internal combustion engine cars. However, as mobility behaviour is highly habitual, convincing people to switch from conventional cars to electric is challenging. In the following research, which was carried out in the past years in Slovenia, an attempt was made to determine what influences people’s buying habits and what would motivate them to buy an electric car. It appeared that the most relevant factor for not purchasing electric cars is, firstly, its overall too high price, and, secondly, short driving ranges. Different studies, as well as the results of the following research have revealed that there is no single measure which would dramatically increase the demand for electric cars. The solution is to combine different measures or strategies like Top – Down and Bottom – Up, where both the government and car industry should come across.

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Regional Railway Transport in Czech, Austrian and German Decentralised and Regionalised Transport Markets

Abstract

The article analyses railway transport markets in three neighbouring Central European countries: the Czech Republic, Austria and Germany (specifically Bavaria and Saxony), with a focus on regional transportation. It examines the organisational form of public transport resulting from regionalisation and provides comparative case studies of regional train services in these countries. The article points out the organisational differences in public transportation between the studied regions and tries to connect these results with the supply of regional train services on various types of lines and in different geographical areas.

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An assessment of the local empowerment and environmental management programme (LEEMP) for poverty alleviation in Oyo State, Nigeria

Abstract

Efforts to liberate the populace, most especially rural communities, from the shackles of poverty, have been ongoing through several approaches since the independent era in Nigeria. The most recent is the Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Programme (LEEMP) which is tailored to undertake projects capable of alleviating poverty. This study assessed the LEEMP projects in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State in Nigeria. Data collection methods were through a questionnaire survey and an interview. A random sampling technique was employed to sample 152 residents from the study population of 30,400 and the results were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. A binary logistics regression was used to determine the influence of the LEEMP projects on the socio-economic status of residents. The findings revealed that: LEEMP projects were mostly the initiatives of both the community and LEEMP officials (72%); over 80% of the respondents observed that community involvement was mainly about land provision and the labour force, justifying over 70% active involvement of the community in the project execution and maintenance. Inferentially, the prediction model was able to classify 83% of the cases correctly, indicating that the predictors contribute significantly to prediction power of the logistic regression model (p<0.000). The Pseudo R-Square of Cox & Snell’s R-square (28%) and Nagelkerke’s R (42%) also show that the model was relevant in predicting the influence of the LEEMP projects on the residents’ socio-economic status. However, age (p=0.000), household size (p=0.019), average monthly income (p=0.033), and educational status (p=0.038) predictors best contributed to the model prediction. The study, however, recommended among others, that the LEEMP projects should be extended extensively within the country accompanied by an injection of adequate funding and a project monitoring mechanism for continuous functionality and sustainability.

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Analysis of Traction Properties and Power of Wheels Used on Various Agricultural Soils

, 18-32. Ekinci, S., Çarman, K., Kahramanlı, H. (2015). Investigation and modelling of the tractive performance of radial tyres using off-road vehicles. Energy, 93 , 1953-1963. Goering, C.E. Hansen, A.C. (2004). Engine and Tractor Power . ASAE Publication. Grisso, R.D., Taylor, R.K., Way, T.R. (1992). Tractive performance of 18.4R46 and 18.4R42 radial tractor tires. ASAE Paper , 91 (1589), 739-745. Jakliński, L. (2006). Mechanika układu pojazd - teren w teorii i badaniach . Wybrane zagadnienia. Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej

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Choice-Perfect Graphs

Appl. Math. 94 (1999) 227-245. doi:10.1016/S0166-218X(99)00023-2 [11] M. Juvan, B. Mohar and R. ˇSkrekovski, List total colourings of graphs, Combin. Probab. Comput. 7 (1998) 181-188. doi:10.1017/S0963548397003210 [12] M. Juvan, B. Mohar and R. Thomas, List edge-colorings of series-parallel graphs, Electron. J. Combin. 6 (1999) #R42. [13] D. Peterson and D.R. Woodall, Edge-choosability in line-perfect multigraphs, Discrete Math. 202 (1999) 191-199. doi:10.1016/S0012-365X(98)00293-3 [14] Zs. Tuza, Graph

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Impact of Transitory Hyperprolactinemia on Clinical Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

population-based case-control study in Poland. Breast Cancer Res 2011; 13: R42. Wang H, Gorpudolo N, Behr B. The role of prolactin- and endometriosis-associated infertility. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009; 64: 542-7. Balasch J, Creus M, Fábregues F, Carmona F, Casamitjana R, Peñarrubia J, et al. Hormonal profiles in successful and unsuccessful implantation in IVF-ET after combined GnRH agonist/gonadotropin treatment for superovulation and HCG luteal support. Gynecol Endocrinol 1995; 9: 51-8. Kaplan CR

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