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Knowledge of uncertainty in analytical results is of prime importance in assessments of compliance with requirements set out for the quality of water intended for human consumption. Assessments of drinking water quality can be performed using either a deterministic or a probabilistic method. In the former approach, every single result is referred directly to the parametric value, while in the probabilistic method uncertainty related to analytical results is taken into account during the decision-making process. In the present research, laboratory uncertainty and uncertainty determined on the basis of results of analyses of duplicate samples collected in two Polish cities were compared and used in the probabilistic approach of water quality assessment. Using the probabilistic method, more results were considered to be “above the parametric value”. Most excesses were observed when the maximum allowable uncertainty as set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 7 December 2017 was used, which is due to the highest values of these uncertainties. The lowest values above parametric values in the probabilistic approach were observed when measurement uncertainty was considered.


Microbiological indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and enterococci) and phylogenetic groups (domain Archaea, classes Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group) detected by FISH were detected in profiles of a highly anthropogenically-affected stream (Luzická Nisa; Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic). This study aimed to assess the changes in the microbial communities of such a polluted stream, and possible relationships between “classic indicators” and the phylogenetic groups. One particular aim concerned a characterisation of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method, the source of any uncertainty and its limit in terms of quality control (QA/QC). Of the phylogenetic groups studied, the Proteobacteria phylum was more abundant in comparison to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group or the Archaea domain. The profile Lucany (above the start of city urban areas) was very different from later downstream profiles, because of its very low faecal bacteria content, low counts of Gammaproteobacteria, and evident dominance of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group together with Betaproteobacteria. Later profiles did not show such large differences among themselves. The group of Gammaproteobacteria was very common mainly in profiles with high amounts of untreated faecal pollution. The repeatability of counting bacteria by the FISH method was 14 % on average, an “uncertainty” similar to that of cultivation methods.


The mercury content in hairs was determined in the framework of the European funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES to test the feasibility of an EU-HBM (Human Biomonitoring) approach generating comparable data. The aim of the Slovak participation in DEMOCOPHES was to obtain and contribute the Slovak data to the harmonization of Human Biomonitoring. Pre-analytical and analytical phase for mercury in hair measurements and activities developed for the harmonization analysis within COPHES/ DEMOCOPHES projects were conducted under a strict quality assurance program (QA/QC). Total mercury in hair was determined by thermal decomposition-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy (AMA- 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer.) Two interlaboratory comparison investigations (ICIs) and two external quality assessment schemes (EQUAS) were conducted before the beginning of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects. The laboratory successfully completed both ICIs and EQUAS schemes and was allowed to analyze all DEMOCOPHES samples of the Slovak Republic. In summary, 129 mother-child pairs were recruited to pilot study of DEMOCOPHES in Slovakia from two different locations representing urban and rural environment. The analyzed data from Slovakia showed relationship between frequency of fish meals consumption (especially sea fish and sea food products) and mercury concentrations in hair of mothers and children. The exposure levels for a sampled population in Slovakia (children 0.092 (0.080-0.106) [μg.g-1], mother 0.130 (0.113-0.148) [μg.g-1]) are below the EU level (children 0.145 (0.139-0.151) [μg.g-1], mother 0.225 (0.216-0.234) [μg.g-1]) up to an order of magnitude lower than the limit medically important (FAO/WHO health-based guidance value of 2.3 μg.g-1 JECFA - Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives).

In 2001, investigations were carried out on the Latvian origin cultivar ‘Suvenîrs’ grafted on seven pear rootstocks (MA, MC, BA29, Pyrodwarf, Brokmal, Kirchensaller Mostbirne and Kazrauðu bumbiere) in Polli (Estonia), Pûre (Latvia) and Babtai (Lithuania). The aim of the investigation was to evaluate pear rootstocks in different climatic conditions in the Baltic region. In Polli, all trees were planted in a dense planting, and therefore, trunk cross section area did not differ significantly between trees on different rootstocks. The most vigorous tree habit was observed in Lithuania for trees grafted on the rootstocks Kirchensaller Mostbirne and Brokmal, but in Latvia on Kirchensaller Mostbirne and Kazrauðu bumbiere. The highest dwarfing effect was observed for rootstock MC in both places. The highest cumulative yield from the orchard area was found for trees grafted on rootstocks of the quince group in all three locations of investigation. Nevertheless, the winter hardiness of the quince group rootstocks was not sufficient for Baltic climatic conditions. Good overwintering in Latvia and Lithuania was observed for trees on Pyrodwarf. Survival rate of trees grafted on Pyrodwarf in Estonia was unsatisfactory. The worse overwintering in Lithuania was observed for trees grafted on Brokmal. There was a dwarfing effect on trees and better yield on the vegetative propagated rootstocks included in the investigation, but none one of them can be recommended as perspective for commercial orchards in Baltic agro-climatic conditions.

information about the water mixing processes ( Kania 2003 ; Kania and Olafsson 2005 ; Süer et al. 2008 ) and also provide geothermometric indicators ( Diamond and Alt-Epping 2014 ; Apollaro et al. 2016 ; Hermandez-Morales and Wulf 2016) or aid research on the source of geothermal water ( Guo et al. 2017 ; Yildirim and Özgür 2017a ; Yilmaz and Özgür 2017b ). To control and monitor the physicochemical parameters of water with sufficient certainty and reliability the implementation of a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) programme in field and laboratory practice

inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit Acta Oncol 2014 53 628 36 10.3109/0284186X.2013.840742 21 Jurković S, Švabić M, Diklić A, Smilović Radojčić Đ, Dundara D, Kasabašić M, et al. Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy departments in Croatia: Results of treatment planning system verification. Med Dosim 2013; 38 :100-4. 10.1016/j.meddos.2012.07.008 Jurković S Švabić M Diklić A Smilović Radojčić Đ Dundara D Kasabašić M Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy