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119 L I T H U A N I A N A N N U A L S T R AT E G I C R E V I E W 2015-2016 Volume 14 DOI: 10.1515/lasr-2016-0005 © Marius Laurinavičius, 2016 © Military Academy of Lithuania, 2016 Marius Laurinavičius* Hudson Institute Putin’s Russia: The Nature and Contradictions of the Regime** The article surveys public information which casts doubt on the traditional definition of Vladimir Putin’s regime as the “Power Vertical” concept; i.e. the assumption of the same chain of reasoning that it was Putin who created this regime and that the beginning of its

References Hill, Fiona - Gaddy, Clifford G. (2013): Mr. Putin: Operative in the Kremlin, Brookings Institution Press. Kryshtanovskaya, Olga - White, Stephen (2003): Putin’s Militocracy. Post-Soviet Affairs 19 (4): 289-306. Kryshtanovskaya, Olga (2008): The Russian Elite in Transition. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 24 (4): 585-603. Kryshtanovskaya, Olga - White, Stephen (2009): The Sovietization of Russian Politics. Post-Soviet Affairs 25 (4): 283-309. Laruelle, Marlène (2009): Inside and Around the Kremlin’s Black Box: The New Nationalist

References Aliboni, R. (2005): The geopolitical implications of the European Neighbourhood Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review 10: 1-16. Andrianovna, Anna and Galouchko, Ksenia (2015): ’S & P Cuts Russia’s Rating to Junk; Sanctions and Oil Slump Hammer Ruble’, Bloomberg News (27 January): available at (27 January 2015). Arkhipov, Ilya and Kravchenko, Stepan (2014): ‘Putin’s Crimea-as-Jerusalem Myth Baffles Russian Historians’, Bloomberg Business (4

Journal on Baltic Security Vol 1, Issue 1, 2015 6 PUTIN’S RUSSIA AS A REVISIONIST POWER Andrei Piontkovsky Strategic Studies Centre, Moscow ______________ Any foreign policy strategy is based on ambitions, objectives, apprehensions and values of a state’s leadership. So before addressing directly the subject of my essay, I am compelled to devote some time to this political motivation of the Russian leadership’s behaviour. We all remember the famous Churchill saying: ‘Russia is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an

subyekt sovryemyennoi rrosiiskoi politichyeskoi sistyemy." In: M. Markov, S. McFaul, A. Ryabov, eds. Formirovanye partiino-pollitichyeskoi sistyemy v Rossii. Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center, 1998. Olcott, Martha Bril. "Vladimir Putin i neftnyanaya politika Rossii." A New Working Paper in Russian No. 1 (2005). Pappe, Yakov. "Neftyanaya i gazovaya diplomatiya Rossii." Pro et Contra Vol. 2, No. 3 (Summer 1997). Pappe, Yakov. "Otraslevye lobbi v pravityelstve Rossii (1992 - 1996)." Pro et Contra Vol. 1, No. 1 (Winter 1996). Pavlenko, Siergiey. "Pravitelstvo reform u

:// . Manyin, M. Pivot to the Pacific? Obama Administration’s “Rebalancing” Toward Asia. Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress (March 2012), p. 2. Marin, A. Minsk-Beijing: What Kind of Strategic Partnership? Russie.Nei.Visions, no. 102, IFRI (June 2017), pp. 17. Web. 15 Jan. 2018, . Menkiszak, M. Russia’s Best Enemy. Russian Policy Towards The United States in Putin’s Era. “ Point of View”, no. 62. Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich, Warszawa, Luty 2017, pp

. Foreign Affairs, January/February, 2008. (accessed January 9, 2012). McFaul, Michael and Kathryn Stoner-Weiss. 2008b. The Myth of the Authoritarian Model: How Putin’s Crackdown Holds Russia Back.Foreign Affairs 87(1): 68-84. Millman, Alexander, Deliang Tang and Frederica Perera. 2008. Air Pollution Threatens the Health of Children in China. Pediatrics 122 (3): 620-628. Nye, Joseph S., Jr. 2011. The Future of Power. New York: Public Affairs. Organisation for Economic Co

. 67, no. 2. Kagarlitsky, Boris. 2008. Empire of the Periphery: Russia and the World System. London: Pluto Press. Lukin, Alexander. 2014. ‘Kuda vedet progress?’, Rossiya v globalnoipolitike, vol. 12, no. 5. Mearsheimer, John J. 2014. ‘Why the Ukraine Crisis is the West’s Fault’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 93, no. 5. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 2013. Concept of the Foreign Polity of the Russian Federation. Approved by President of the Russian Federation V. Putin on 12 February 2013, at


This article focuses on attitudes towards Russia in Bulgaria and Hungary — two EU and NATO countries with special relations to Russia — in the wake of Russia’s annexation of Crimea and military intervention in support of separatists in the Donbas region of Eastern Ukraine in 2014 and onwards. We begin by putting the relations to Russia in a historical perspective. We then set out to account for support for Russia with the help of survey data from the Post-Crimea Barometer (2015) — a unique survey focusing on geopolitical orientation (East versus West) and attitudes towards Russia in Latvia, Hungary and Bulgaria in a post-Crimea setting. Latvia is a special case because of its large Russian minority population; we therefore confine our comparison to Bulgaria and Hungary. The findings suggest that long-term attachment to Russia is decisive in Bulgaria. In Hungary, long-term attachment to Russia is important, but not sufficient to account for post-Crimea attitudes towards Russia.

:// (search made on 19. 12. 2014) Holsti, Kalevi J. (1970): National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly 14 (3): 233-309. Horvath, Robert (2013): Putin’’s preventive counter-revolution. Routledge, Oxon. Kremlin: Transcripts of President Putin’s speeches. Available at, search for the research was made on 10. 12. 2014, references to results are placed in the text. Leichtova, Magda (2014): Misunderstanding Russia. Ashgate, Farnham. Lo, Bobo (2002): Russian Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era. Palgrave