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P. Prathiba Jeya Helan, K. Mohanraj and G. Sivakumar
evaporation method is a vacuum deposition process in which target material is evaporated by electron bombardment. First, commercially available Cu (0.052 g), Sn (0.050 g) and Se (0.098 g) metal powders with high purity (99.7 %, 99.5 % and 99.9 %) were taken as target evaporation sources which were placed in a quartz crucible wrapped with a tungsten wire and the ultrasonically cleaned micro-glass substrates were situated above the source. The tungsten filament inside the electron gun was heated to emit electrons forming a beam which was directed toward the target materials
The aim of the study was a hydromorphological valorisation of the river valley in the Roztocze region using the British method - River Habitat Survey (RHS). As a result of field research two numerical indicators HMS (Habitat Modification Score) and HQA (Habitat Quality Assessment) were identified and purity water classes were defined. The river did not fulfil the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, because its state was defined as poor and moderate. On the base of physical and chemical parameters, in the majority of water studied the watercourses were classified to the first class of purity. Only in one segment waters were below the first class, or even out of class.
Biodiesel is a promising energy substitute of fossil fuels since it is produced from renewable and biodegradable sources. In the present work, reactive distillation (RD) process is designed and simulated using Aspen Plus process simulator to produce biodiesel of high purity through esterification reaction. The simultaneous reaction and separation in same unit enhances the biodiesel yield and composition in RD process. Two flowsheets are proposed in present work. In the first flowsheet, the unreacted methanol is recycled back to reactive distillation column. Biodiesel with 99.5 mol% purity is obtained in product stream while the byproduct stream comprises 95.2 mol% water, which has to be treated further. In the second flowsheet, a part of methanol recycle is split and purged. In this case, the biodiesel composition in product stream is 99.7 mol% whereas water composition is 99.9 mol% in byproduct stream, which can be reused for other process without treatment.
Mihai Lungu, Raluca Giugiulan, Antoanetta Lungu, Madalin Bunoiu and Adrian Neculae
This paper investigates the possibility to improve the filtering process of flue gas by separation of suspended nanoparticle using dielectrophoresis. The study focuses on the particles having an average radius of about 50-150 nm, that cannot be filtrated by classical techniques but have a harmful effect for environment and human health. The size distribution nanoparticles collected from the flue gas filters of a hazardous waste incinerator plant were evaluated. Based on obtained experimental data and a proposed mathematical model, the concentration distribution of nanoparticle suspended in flue gas inside a microfluidic separation device was analyzed by numerical simulations, using the finite element method. The performances of the device were described in terms of three new specific quantities related to the separation process, namely Recovery, Purity and Separation Efficiency. The simulations could provide the optimal values of control parameters for separation process, and aim to be a useful tool in designing microfluidic devices for separating nanoparticle from combustion gases.
Miroslav Variny, Patrik Furda, Norbert Kováč and Otto Mierka
Propane-propylene mixture splitting by industrial conventional rectification incorporating a heat pump for energy intensity decrease was modeled in the Matlab environment. The constructed model was verified by comparing its results with operational data of a real C3 fraction splitting unit. As documented, increased product quality can be obtained at zero additional costs due to specific features of the system design. Process capacity and product purity limitations have to be considered in future C3 fraction production increase plans. Further compressor and its driving unit design features have to be incorporated in the calculation model to reliably assess the C3 fraction processing costs and provide a reliable tool for process operation optimization.
Methods for Measurement and Verification of Purity of Iodine Cells for Laser Frequency Stabilization
We present an improved technique for detection of trace impurities in iodine-filled absorption cells for laser frequency stabilization. The results of purity investigation are compared to frequency shifts measured with a set of two iodine stabilized Nd:YAG lasers. The setup for direct fluorescence measurement with an Argon-ion laser operating at 502 nm wavelength is equipped with compensation for laser power and spectral instabilities.
Francisco Granados-Correa and Juan Bonifacio-Martínez
A rapid, safe and simple technique for the production of high purity strontium oxide powders via a chemical combustion process is reported. The combustion reactions were performed to optimize the fuel to oxidizer ratios in the reaction mixtures required to obtain pure SrO powders by varying the molar ratio of chemical precursors and the temperature. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and N2-physisorption measurements. The results indicate that crystalline SrO was obtained using a 1:1 strontium nitrate: urea molar ratio at 1000 °C after 5 minutes. In addition, high-purity, homogeneous and crystalline SrO powders were easily produced in a short time via a chemical combustion process.