Producers’ Perceptions of Interactivity and Audience Participation in Finland and Israel
Heidi Keinonen and Oranit Klein Shagrir
The digitalisation of media technologies has resulted in changes to various levels of television culture. In addition to enabling technological convergence, digitisation has also brought about cultural transformations, such as the blurring of the traditional spheres of production and consumption. As a result, television companies – commercial broadcasters as well as publicservice broadcasters (PSBs) – are increasingly adopting multi-platform practices that enable interactivity and audience participation. Broadcasting company managers and
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Nestor Shpak, Nazar Podolchak, Veronika Karkovska and Wlodzimierz Sroka
conditions for an active exchange of knowledge in the processes of work ( Karkovska and Vasiunyk, 2016 ). The public sphere is no exception; on the contrary, it is extremely necessary therein. Since the effectiveness of public administration depends on achieving the best results at optimal costs, the state authorities must build a professional, prestigious, motivated publicservice – oriented to a new generation – accordingly ( Hora, 2018 ).
The main mistake within both private and public structures is the use of template training for employees, which is based
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Perry, James L., Annie
Outsourcing of Public-Services - Forms and Limitations
Purpose of the article is to show how public services can be outsourced from communities and what legal, organizational or other limitations may have to be taken into account.
Methodology used for this article is literature research, analysis and comparison. An in-depth look into the present status of research and literature will be interconnected to the basic research in this matter that has been done from the 1970's to the 1990's.
Scientific aim is to show the potential of the process as being important and helpful in creating better community-service and meanwhile relieve the communities from organizational and financial burdens that are more difficult to carry than ever before.
Findings are that we have to determine between the different municipal economic activities and the legal basis of these activities. The intervening public-service is a prominent example for the restrictive regulatory system it is set in but also is seen as having a big potential for cooperation and outsourcing by contracting-out. Contrary to that the service-rendering public-service is less regulated and more open to a market approach.
There are different spheres for these economic activities to take place. Different reasons for outsourcing depend on the specific sphere a certain task belongs to and can include economic, fiscal and political aspects. Two big groups of tasks are annex-tasks from within the public-service and characteristic public-services. There can be outsourcing by commissioning or by using submissions.
With different legal forms of the outsourced entities and the legal limits that are set for every different kind of structure, it is clear that there is no solution that always fits all the needs and that this has to be carefully taken into account.
Conclusions are that there is a high potential and big successes when outsourcing is done well planned and as a strategic activity. A number of legal issues and other limitations always has to be respected.
This study deals with influence of globalization on the economic aspect of the media. Financing the media and the issue of ownership over them represents the fundamental framework on which basis the media work and direct their editorial policy. Principle position implies that owners of the media use power of media to promote their economic, political, cultural and other stances. A particular issue, especially in European countries in transition, represents the financing of public service, as a socially beneficial good. Many commercial media, on the basis of their financial and political power, are trying to diminish or discredit the power and role of the public service. Former socialist countries, now countries in transition, seek from their national budgets to maintain this kind of informing, that is, the public interest, education and promoting cultural values. The era of globalization brought, as one of its negative traits, the domination of profit over culture, education, and even over the right to have quality informing. So the mass media have become a sort of hostage of confrontation of different political and economic interests, which reflects on the quality of media content that strive towards sensationalism, advertocracy, tabloidization. Based on the case study of Montenegro, as a country in transition, the development of mass media is shown, including their financing, ownership structure, and profit.