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common carp brain cells – CCB) by immersion in 10 L aquaria. Investigations were carried out on specimens of European bitterling ( Rhodeus amarus ), brown bullhead ( Ameiurus nebulosus ), grass carp, Prussiancarp ( Carassius gibelio ), roach, stone moroko ( Pseudorasbora parva ), tench, and three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculaeatus ). The virus suspensions with a titre of 4 × 10 3 in 2 ml were added to the tank. Control fish (European bitterling, brown bullhead, grass carp, Prussiancarp, roach, stone moroko, tench, and three-spined stickleback) were exposed
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Economic ranking of the importance of fish species to lake fisheries stocking management in Poland
This paper analyzes commercial fish stocking and catches in lakes in the 2001-2007 period. The eleven fish species that are stocked most intensely were analyzed. Rank scaling was used to compare the parameter values of the analyzed fish species. This permitted ranking all of the species from the most to the least important to lake fisheries management. Pike, Esox lucius L.; eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.); vendace, Coregonus albula (L.); and carp, Cyprinus carpio L were the highest ranked species. These were followed by tench, Tinca tinca (L.), and pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.), as well as whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), and common Crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), and Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch). The following were of marginal significance: bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis Rich.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), wels catfish, Silurus glanis (L.), and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.
This paper was based on survey data regarding stocking and fish catches from the 1995-2007 period that was collected from enterprises licensed to manage lake fisheries in Poland. An average of 70 questionnaires were collected annually from lake fisheries enterprises exploiting a combined lake surface area of 228,102 ha. The eleven species of fish analyzed were those that were the most intensely stocked. The effectiveness of stocking in Polish lakes in this period was analyzed by calculating the mean annual stocking effectiveness coefficient, i.e, the value in PLN ha-1 of catches of a given species per 1 PLN ha-1 of stocking this species in a given year. The highest mean annual stocking effectiveness coefficient was noted for pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) (4.21 PLN ha-1) and bighead carp Aristichthys noblilis Rich. together with silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. (4.02 PLN ha-1); however, these values were unstable. A similar situation was noted for eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), which had the next highest stocking effectiveness coefficient at 2.32 PLN ha-1. The stocking effectiveness coefficient was stable for tench Tinca tinca (L.) (2.16 PLN ha-1), vendace Coregonus albula (L.) (2.09 PLN ha-1), and pike Esox lucius L. (1.31 PLN ha-1). The stocking of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.), Wels catfish Silurus glanis (L.), crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) together with Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch., common carp Cyprinus carpio L., and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., were ineffective economically from the viewpoint of the size of commercial catches.
Management of fish populations in lobelia lakes in the vicinity of Bytów (northern Poland)
The aim of the studies was to describe the fisheries management of five lobelia lakes and one non-lobelia reference lake. Data from commercial catches was used to estimate the size of the catches, and to determine the species and ecologial structure of the catches, and to describe stocking. During the period from 1968 to 2006, eleven fish species belonging to five families were noted in the catches. The species structure of the commercial catches of the analyzed lobelia lakes corresponded to that of either vendace or eutrophic lakes. Catches made in lobelia lakes were from 2.5 to 5-fold smaller in comparison to the reference lake. The dominant species in commercial catches made in basins with lobelia vegetation were roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), and pike, Esox lucius L., but bream, Abramis brama (L.), vendace, Coregonus albula (L.), and carp, Cyprinus carpio L., also occurred in some lakes. Pike was caught most frequently, followed by bream, roach, and perch. The largest catches were made in either March or November. During the period from 1968 to 2006, the lakes were stocked with ten fish species, nine of which were noted in the official statistics. Only six species occurred naturally in these lakes. Peled, Coregonus peled (Gmelin), is an alien species, and its occurrence was certainly connected with stocking. Pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.), was translocated outside of its area of natural occurrence, while carp and Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch), were alien species.
Presence of Ecotoxicologically Relevant Pgp and MRP Transcripts and Proteins in Cyprinid Fish
One of the most intriguing defence strategies which aquatic organisms developed through evolution is multixenobiotic resistance (MXR). The key mediators of MXR activity are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins. They provide resistance of aquatic organisms by binding xenobiotics and extruding them from cells in an energy-dependent manner. Since Cyprinid fish species are common target in freshwater biomonitoring programs, we have studied the presence of two main MDR/MXR efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1) and MRP-like protein(s) (Abcc) in the liver of five Cyprinid species: common carp, European chub, sneep, barbel, and silver prussian carp. Their presence was evaluated on the mRNA and protein level. Various pairs of primers were designed to clone homologous fragments of MXR-related genes. At the protein level, we used Western blotting with specific monoclonal antibodies against human Pgp (Abcb1, Ab C219), MRP1 (Abcc1; Ab MRPm6) or MRP2 (Abcc2; Ab M2I-4). Transcripts of both key types of MXR transporters were identified in all species examined and here we provide the phylogenetic analysis of new partial sequences. Immunochemical determinations with mammalian antibodies failed to identify the presence of MRP(s), but Pgp expression was found in all five Cyprinid species. These results support that MXR is a defence system mediated by both Pgp and MRP types of ABC transport proteins.