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The changing approach to a physician’s profession brings about changes in the professional education and training of family physicians as well as in their continuous qualification improvement. For this reason, during the reformation of Lithuania’s primary healthcare system, not only alterations in family physicians’ activity, but also the changes in their education and training and the updating and improvement of their curriculum were seen as priority areas.

The aim of the study was to reveal and compare resident physicians’ attitude to the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians based on the traditional and problem-based learning systems at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (subsequently, LSMU).

The study on the professional education and training of family physicians was conducted in 2005 and in 2015. The quantitative study was carried out via a written questionnaire survey. The studied population consisted of resident physicians who were studying family medicine at the LSMU.

The analysis of the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians showed that resident physicians acquired sufficient knowledge and skills in the fields of disease diagnostics and treatment, qualification improvement, disease prevention, and teamwork organization. Resident physicians had insufficient skills to adapt to new conditions of activity, and their studies did not develop creative thinking. The problem-based learning (PBL) system helps future family physicians to develop essential competences and to acquire knowledge and skills required for the career of a family physician.


The comparative analysis of modern foreign concepts and systems of professional training of specialists in Western European countries has been carried out. Leading ideas, principles and regularities of the development of continuous professional education have been revealed. It has been stated that most developed European countries gradually reduce vocational education. At the same time, vocational and technical profiles of upper secondary education, which exist almost everywhere, with the exception of Great Britain, are actively developing. The consequence of these changes is the disappearance of many training profiles. Everywhere there is a tendency to prepare workers of advanced specialties. Today, European countries are working to solve the problem of “reducing training profiles to the minimum number”. At the same time profiling of high school is carried out. Different approaches to reforming the system of vocational education management in the countries of the world have been highlighted. Particular attention has been paid to the main areas of modernization of vocational education as a component of continuing education, the management of this process at the state, regional and local levels. Comparative analysis of materials in these areas has been carried out, the results of which suggest that the modernization of vocational education management in foreign countries is carried out using the principle of decentralization on the basis of the developed and adopted at the state level regulatory and legal basis. All countries have a clear division of powers at all levels of government (state, regional, local).


Current research is dedicated to the issues of apprising personal and professional motivation of youth in the process of their training in higher educational institutions. Principal components of the motivational field of a personality, beneficial for professional success and productivity, have been examined, including such prominent types of motives as cognitive, social, professional, material and achievement. Individual dispositions have been scrutinized as the integral elements of the motivational scope of a person. Consistent patterns and missions of cognitive motivation within the educational process raised as one of the key questions throughout the research. Analyzing of meaningful and dynamic characteristics of personal motives enabled the authors of this paper to classify personal motives for self-development in the process of education, among which there are self-realization, self-affirmation, self-expression and self-actualization. Central assumption here is the correlation between an individual’s professional and personal activity and transformation of the tasks of professional and personal development. Theoretical framework consists of A.Leontiev’s, A.Maslow’s and C.Sanderson’s approaches to the notion of “motivation” as the inside encouraging reason for individual’s motions and activities.

. Pharm. Edu., 65, Spring 2001. 13. Rules for the implementation of the continuing professional education of pharmacists. Available at: 14. Sinclair, H. K. et al. Training pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in the stage-of-change model of smoking cessation: A randomised controlled trial in Scotland. - Tobacco control, 7, 1998, № 3, 253-261. 15. Srumova , Continuous education of pharmacists in Czech Republic. - Farm. Obzor, 74, 2005, № 11, 288-295.



Guidance from the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) sets out the educational milestones haemophilia nurses should aim to achieve. However, little is known about the resources nurses use for education and current awareness.


To assess the current educational level of haemophilia nurses, how and where they access ongoing education, where they feel they need extra support, and how best this teaching could be delivered.


Haemophilia nurses in the Haemnet Horizons group devised and piloted a questionnaire. This was distributed in hard copy to nurses attending the 2019 EAHAD Congress and promoted as an online survey hosted by Survey Monkey.


Seventy-five replies were received from nurses in Europe (46 in the UK), and two from nurses in Chile and the Philippines. Most described their role as ‘specialist nurse’, with the majority having worked in haemophilia care for up to ten years. Half had a nursing degree and one quarter had a nursing diploma. Three quarters had attended at least one course specifically related to haemophilia nursing. Almost all used academic sources, study days and the websites of health profession organisations as information sources. Most also used Google or Wikipedia, but fewer used Twitter. Patient association websites were more popular among non-UK nurses. About half attended sponsored professional meetings and three quarters reported that educational meetings were available in their workplace. A clear majority preferred interactive and face-to-face activities using patient-focused content.


The study shows that nurses, predominantly in Western Europe, access a range of educational resources, most of which are ‘traditional’. Use of online sources is high, but social media are less popular than Google or Wikipedia. Further research is needed to explore the potential of new media for haemophilia nurse education, and whether the current educational levels and needs highlighted in the survey remains the same across the whole of Europe.


The increasing significance of science and more intensive cooperation with foreign partners create favorable preconditions for the education and training of good specialists. In view of the renewal of specialty knowledge and the possibility to read the most recent scientific literature in a foreign language and to participate in international conferences with foreign partners, it has become relevant to educate specialists capable of cooperating in scientific and subject-oriented activity when freely communicating in several foreign languages. However, currently, many higher education institutions in Lithuania are reducing the number of hours in the professional foreign language modules. Still, despite the continuous reduction of the hours allocated for foreign language learning, the requirements for the quality of knowledge are actually increasing. For this reason, the teacher faces a problem of how to help a student internalize the required professional knowledge within a short period of time. The aim of the study was to reveal the peculiarities of the expression of integrated practical classes in professional language studies at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LSMU). In search of new possibilities for professional language learning, integrated professional language classes were used for students learning medicine in Lithuanian and a foreign language. During these classes, medical issues were analyzed. The study on the learning process in the integrated professional language classes at the LSMU was carried out in 2014. Data for this quantitative study were collected by using a written survey. The studied population consisted of 2nd- and 3rd-year students of the LSMU Faculty of Medicine. The results of the study conducted at the LSMU when teaching the Professional Language module showed that integrated practical classes of professional language positively influenced the students’ learning and facilitated students’ empowerment for successful professional language studies. The students positively evaluated the contents of the integrated classes, the methods used, and the teachers’ competence. The students’ opinion about the application of the elements of PBL during integrated professional language classes was also favorable. The students were willing to try something new and to learn languages by drawing schemes and maps, discussing medical issues, analyzing problems, and searching for answers to the arising questions.

meeting from June, the 18th, 2008], Москва: Московский университет (in Russian). 3. Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации [Financial Institute under the Government of the Russian Federation]. (2013). Стратегия развития федерального государственного образовательного бюджетного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации» на 2013-2020 годы [The development strategy of the state federal educational budget establishment of higher professional education “Financial Institute under the


The intense employment environment causes some college students to start their own business, arousing people's hot debate on entrepreneurship education. Through reading a large number of documents and collecting mass data, this paper analyzes the current situation of entrepreneurship education in China: the gap between entrepreneurial education and professional education, the discrepancy between the number of people who intend to start a business and that of those who hold on to it, the inadequate discipline construction of the entrepreneurship education, etc, making the in-depth analysis of the causes and putting forward the countermeasures for the development of entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities from three aspects of society, colleges and universities, and individuals.

References 1. Жнжко, О. (2013). ІІрофесійна ocdma маргінальних груп населения в Мексиці та Венесуелі: становления і рокнопок [Professional education of marginalized groups in Mexico and Venezuela: emergence and development], Херсон: IIII Гринь Д.С. (in Ukrainian) 2. Enebral J.. Valderrama. B. (2009). La intuition en la empiesa Manual para direcmos у profesionales de! conocimiento [Intuition in the company. Manual for managers and knowledge workers]. Mexico: Editorial Gesnon. (in Spanish) 3. Fernandez Enguita. M. (1995). La profesion docente у la comunidad escolor


Introduction. Well-implemented, holistic care of the dying patient requires appropriate qualifications from the medical personnel.

Aim. The aim of the study was to collect the opinions of nursing and medical students before the end of their professional education on their preparation to provide care to the dying patient.

Material and methods. The survey was carried out in a group of 213 medical and nursing students during their final year of professional education.

Results. Students were unable to clearly express their opinion on their preparation to provide care to patients at the end of their lives (87; 40.8%). Nursing students were more likely to perceive themselves as prepared for such care – 30 (26.7%) than medical students – 11 (10.9%). Statistically significant correlation was observed. A large group of the students (92; 43.2%) had never been present at the scene of a patient’s death during clinical classes. The majority of the respondents chose ‘definitely not’ (59; 27.7%) and ‘rather not’ (53; 24.9%) answers when asked if their university education had prepared them for work with patients at the end of their lives. Students considered their knowledge to be lacking mostly in areas such as coping with their own emotions in the face of a patient’s death (137; 64.3%); communicating with a dying person (119; 55.9%); providing care to the patient’s family (154; 72.3%); cooperating with the patient’s family (125; 58.7%).

Conclusions. Students of both majors are not certain about the level of their preparation to provide care to people at the end of their lives, nor about the extent to which their university education had introduced them to the specificity of care of a dying patient. The medical students were observed to exhibit higher statistical significance as compared to the nursing students. The university curriculum prepared the students to take care of the dying patient’s biological sphere, but did not prepare them to assume a holistic approach to care of the patient and his family.