The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between money supply, price level and economic growth in the context of Pakistan by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, covered a period of 1980 to 2016. The results confirm the long-run relationship between the variables while using broad money supply as a response variable. However, in the price and income modeling, the variables do not support the cointegration relationship between the variables. The causality results confirmed the unidirectional relationship running from income to money supply, which implies that income do causes money supply in the short run, whereas money supply leads to inflation to support Monetarist view of inflation in a country. The results conclude that economic growth is imperative to stabilize money supply and price level through sound economic policies in a country.
Application of The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union implies the existence of a single market (without customs duties on mutual trade), the community’s priority in meeting the needs for agricultural products (protection against imports) and the existence of financial solidarity (joint financing). Joining the European Union for new member states implies the termination of the implementation of the existing national agricultural policy and the the beginning of the implementation of the CAP. Although membership in the European Union implies many advantages, the period after joining this community can be quite economically unstable for some countries. One of the most significant problems is an increase in agricultural product prices and a rise in the general price level (inflation). The above can be confirmed by a simple empirical analysis of the economic indicators of the countries that joined the EU together in the period from 2004 until 2007.
This article analyzes comparative price levels of 10 new EU member countries from Central, East, and South-East Europe and discusses their main determinants. A comparison of comparative price levels is logically followed by a comparison of relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Further, the Balassa-Samuelson efect is theoretically explained and empirically tested using a sample of EU27 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The results of simple regression analysis confrm that diferences in comparative price levels can be explained by the diferences in relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Besides the Balassa-Samuelson efect there are, however, many other factors that have an impact on comparative price levels. Tey are related to the lower competitiveness of domestic companies on international markets as the result of such factors as a lower quality of production, inefcient organizational structures and management styles, insufcient marketing and business skills, or a poor approach to international distribution channels.
the PriceLevel. Econometrica, 69(1). pp. 69-116. COMBES, J., DEBRUN, X., MINEA, A., and TAPSOBA, R. (2014). Inflation Targeting and Fiscal Rules: Do Interactions and Sequencing Matter? IMF Working Paper WP/14/89, May. DE BROUWER, G.J., RAMAYANDI, A., and TURVEY, D. (2006). Macroeconomic Linkages and Regional Monetary Cooperation: Steps Ahead. Asian Economic Policy Review, 1(2). pp. 284-301. FATÁS, A. and MIHOV, I. (2003). The Case for Restricting Fiscal Policy Discretion. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4). pp. 1419-47. FATÁS, A. and MIHOV, I. (2006). The
the Global Crisis for Macroeconomic Policy”, available at: https://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2009/021909.pdf / (1 May 2014). 5. Borio, C., Zhu, H. (2008), “Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: a missing link in the transmission mechanism”, BIS Working Paper, No 268, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1334132 / (15 May 2014). 6. Ditmar, R., Gavin, W. T., Kydland, F. E. (1999), “The Inflation-Output Variability Tradeoff and PriceLevel Targets”, Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, available at: http
This study sheds light on the real and nominal economic convergence and the time-varying convergence speed of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). This paper also employs panel data models and a Malmquist index to analyze the mechanism of real economic convergence. The study finds evidence of real convergence in monthly growth of output (industrial production) of the BRICS economies, where the speed of convergence increases in the post-crisis period. Economic convergence is also witnessed by physical capital per capita and total factor productivity (TFP). However, lack of monetary convergence is apparent in nominal interest rate spreads, monetary aggregate M2, and the price level. Although the BRICS economies are converging to a fully-fledged economic and trade union, such convergence is not echoed by their monetary aggregates and price levels. Finally, the evidence of technological progress is expected to promote labor productivity and to further accelerate economic convergence.
This paper examines the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate in a Multiple Indicator Approach (MIA) framework. This study has employed a monetary policy index of key monetary policy instruments in India (Bank rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Repo and Reverse Repo rates). The study finds the empirical evidence for puzzling behavior of price level and exchange rate. Both price and exchange rate increase initially in response to a contractionary policy shock. Policy shocks affect output, inflation and exchange rate to an appreciable extent over a forecasting horizon of one year.
The objective of this paper is to outline the main macroeconomic trends in the new member countries of the European Union before the Euro Area debt crisis. In order to achieve this objective, the developments in a wide range of macroeconomic indicators (exchange rates, foreign trade, monetary policy, inflation, price levels, and fiscal balances, sovereign debt, GDP, labour productivity, composition of output and current account balances) have been analyzed. The analysis results in recommendations on the macroeconomic policies the new member countries should have implemented under global crisis condition in accordance with the peculiarities of their economies and their specific national priorities.
This paper presents three measures of the output gap estimated by a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the Czech economy. We argue that the most plausible description of the business cycle provides the output gap defined as a deviation from a flexible price level of output, which is generated solely by permanent growth shocks. Our model shows that 2006-2008 overheating of the economy and the following 2008-2009 slump can be largely attributed to development in a world economy and export and import sectors, while the 2012-2013 recession was caused mainly by a combination of adverse domestic demand and cost shocks.
This paper aims to analyse and examine consumer behaviour based on different variables (age, gender, level of education, income, customer care, delivery time), and the impact of those variables on consumer satisfaction on domestic and foreign online services in Kosovo. The data represented in the paper have been collected on 2017 and 2019. The majority of demographic variables (except gender and income) as independent variables have shown to be significant in explaining consumer satisfaction from online services. On the contrary, the level of customers’ gender and income have shown to be statistically insignificant (p=0.143 and p=0.264 respectively; where α=5%). In addition, income has shifted from being insignificant in 2017 to significant in 2019. It can be inferred that the strongest correlation has shifted towards the price level of the 4 P’s of Marketing with total customer satisfaction from online services (r=.996), followed by customer care (r=.990).