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This essay aims to illustrate the way in which the American writer Cormac McCarthy constructs the role of the children in his novels Blood Meridian, or the Evening Redness in the West and The Road to challenge the discursive reality elaborated by the two adult protagonists. The premise of this endeavor is that both Judge Holden and the man offer a logocentric vision of the world, which the young characters resist by questioning its validity and exposing its limits. The Post-Structuralist criticism of Jacques Derrida and Friedrich Nietzsche represents the theoretical foundation of the text analysis proposed below.


Es gibt zahlreiche Landschafts- oder Kulturlandschaftsbegriffe, was mitunter irritierend sein kann. In diesem Beitrag wird kein „neuer“ Landschaftsbegriff propagiert. Stattdessen untersuchen wir, wie „Landschaft“ oder „Kulturlandschaft“ in politischen Diskursen mit Bedeutung aufgeladen werden. Ziel ist es, einen Ansatz zur Analyse der diskursiven Konstituierung von Kulturlandschaft und Methoden zu dessen Umsetzung vorzustellen. Dabei stützen wir uns auf die poststrukturalistische Diskurstheorie von Ernesto Laclau. Als Beispiele werden eine bundesweite Erhebung zu den thematischen Bezügen ortsbezogener Kulturlandschaftsdiskurse und eine vertiefende Untersuchung von Landschaftskonzepten und Argumentationsmustern in politischen Diskursen über die Nutzung der Windenergie in Deutschland vorgestellt. In den Windenergiediskursen werden allgemein bekannte Landschaftskonzepte reproduziert: „Landschaft als schönes, wertvolles Gebiet“, „Landschaft als von Menschen geprägtes Gebiet“ und „Landschaft als etwas subjektiv Wahrgenommenes“. Der Pro-Windenergie-Diskurs verursacht jedoch Brüche in der scheinbaren Geschlossenheit des konservativen Landschaftsdiskurses, dessen Kernstruktur das Landschaftskonzept „schönes, wertvolles Gebiet“ darstellt, und auch in umgekehrter Richtung werden Friktionen ausgelöst. Durch bestimmte Argumentationsmuster wird versucht, die Diskurse zu schließen und gegen Störungen zu immunisieren. Insgesamt spielen Landschaftskonzepte in Windenergiediskursen eine nachgeordnete Rolle und werden teilweise unter instrumentellen, argumentationstaktischen Gesichtspunkten artikuliert.


The authors investigated the impact of government agricultural policies on exports of cocoa and rubber in Nigeria using cointegration and Error Correction Model approach. The analysis was carried out on time series data collected from 1970 to 2008. The result shows that Policies like Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and Post-Structural Adjustment Programme (PSAP) have a significant positive impact on exports of cocoa and rubber. A possible reason been that the export promotion incentives provided in the SAP and PSAP periods probably encouraged the production of these crops. Among these incentives are liberalization of agricultural exports, liberalization and devaluation of the Naira exchange rate. Similarly, the ACGSF provided incentives in the form of credit which probably encouraged the production of these crops.


The article analyses references made to the notion of truth and falsehood in Swedish and Polish parliamentary talk. The results show that despite the mainstreaming of post-structuralism in contemporary society, the notion of truth – the central question of Western philosophy – is still present the parliamentary talk and in the ways in which MPs deliberate and engage in arguments. As the article argues, the MPs deploy discursive strategies exploiting mostly the classical or early modern objective theories of truth. Seeing truth as the ultimate value makes it expedient as a persuasive device and part of epideictic oratory. Apart from the similarities found in the Swedish and Polish parliamentary talk, the article shows differences mainly in how directly an accusation of lying can be voiced in the two parliaments.

Tichý revolucionár našej vedy František Miko (Zamyslenia Nad Jeho Osobnosťou a Dielom)


Introduction: Research into gender diversity and equality of gender in humanities has been mounting since 1960s, when post-modernism and post-structuralism emerged as a reaction to metanarratives of modernization. Methods and approaches in ELT also arose in the same years. However, queer and LGBT identities were intentionally ignored in ELT discipline and departments, although English as a lingua franca was already hailed in the inner circle. This study aimed to unearth the views of young adult learners of English regarding LGBT. Two data collection instruments were administered. A standard scale composed of 21 items that measure homosexuality attitudes was given to the participants (N= 113). In addition, a semi-structured interview was prepared to elicit the participants’ views (N=12). The results of the study show that most of the participants showed a positive attitude towards LGBT. However, they reported that this topic was never addressed in ELT settings.

Methods: The study was qualitatively designed to elicit the views of young adult learners regarding homosexuality. A standard scale developed by Kite and Deaux (1986) and which was psychometrically sound and reliable to identify the attitudes towards homosexuality and a descriptive phenomenographic research method were used to learn the ideas of the participants. Phenomenographic research method aims to elicit lived experiences of individuals by using experiential description. Although there were 600 young adult learners of English, only 113 of them volunteered to participate in the study. The participants studied English as a foreign language at a public university in Turkey. The average age of the participants was 18. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 12 of the participants.

Results: The findings of the study represent that most of the participants ascribed positive attitudes towards homosexuality. Further, a big number of the informants put forward the significance of such concepts as freedom and respect for personal preferences. Besides, an average number of respondents attributed homosexuality as a hormonal disorder encountered in society. The majority of the respondents put an emphasis on the taboo of religion. They revealed that homosexuality is a taboo which is strictly forbidden in Islam and such issues should not be voiced explicitly in our daily life.

Discussion: This study dealt with the issue of LGBT and homosexuality in foreign language settings by taking the views of young adult learners of English into consideration. The results show that homosexuality representation is insufficient in ELT textbooks, curriculum and materials. Although most of the participants showed a positive attitude towards the representation of homosexuality, they noted that LGBT was never addressed in classroom settings. Similarly, Gray (2013) also emphasizes that LGBT identity was not represented in ELT, though considerable progress has been legally made in the UK. Nelson (2002) strongly recommends that queering ESL through discourses may help ESL develop a more diverse attitude towards LGBG identity.

Limitations: This study was limited to only young adult learners in English language teaching. In addition, only two collection data tools, a standard homosexuality scale and a semi-structured interview form, were used. Besides, convenience sampling was used. The sampling was confined to 113 participants for the scale and 12 learners for the semi-structured interview form.

Conclusions: The results show that most of the participants have positive attitudes towards acceptance of homosexual identities. Although ELT textbooks and materials tend to discard LGBT identity, teachers and students can queer ELT, EFL and ESL classrooms by using the tenets of progressive education and critical pedagogy. The use of participatory approach can be reinforced and expanded in ELT world encompassing not only inner circle but also outer and expanding circles. Materials, tasks and activities need to be updated in ELT curriculum. The first discussions of equality of gender in post-modernist and post-structuralist theories can be perceptibly seen in ELT by endorsing and developing critical pedagogy.


Introduction: Studies on the relationship between ideology, hegemony and textbooks in applied linguistics have been incremental in recent decades because emergence of critical theory, critical pedagogy, and critical thinking skills from the 1920s on has led scholars to develop a critical perspective towards EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks taking the elements of ideology and hegemony into consideration. These two terms encompass an innumerable number of elements or compounds ranging from nationalism to religion. The importance of meta-narratives originating from the tenets of modernism or modernization has been downgraded from 1960s on because it has been postulated that the world has entered a new age called postmodernism and post-structuralism that have emphasized the role of individuals and criticized the efforts to reinforce post-colonialism, the effects of which can be seen in EFL textbooks. Therefore, it remains crucial to analyze EFL textbooks taking the main elements of ideology and hegemony into account. The aim of this study is to investigate the ideological and hegemonic practices included in globally and locally written EFL textbooks.

Methods: Using a mixed method research design, ideological and hegemonic representations included in EFL textbooks were examined qualitatively through descriptive content analysis technique employed to make valid assumptions by interpreting and coding content of textual materials. For the qualitative data, based on a descriptive research design, textbook analyses, documentary analysis, were conducted. As for the inductive content analysis, both globally and locally EFL textbooks were examined. The themes were extracted with the help of the experts since this study entailed inductive content analysis. Each theme was analyzed and perused by the experts. After a rigorous analysis, each theme was compared, and in the last stage common themes were formed.

Results: The findings of the present study show that ideology and hegemony of inner and expanding circle cultures are dominant in EFL textbooks. While the expanding circle culture is dominant in the locally written EFL textbooks, the inner circle culture is extensively included in the globally written ones. However, outer circle countries are excluded and marginalized. Besides, while specific ideologies such as economy and history were highly included in both globally and locally written textbooks, some of them such as law and gender were weakly detected.

Discussion: This present study showed that locally written textbooks dwell more on expanding circles, whereas globally written textbooks except for national geographic textbooks, to a large extent, mention only inner circle. Correspondingly, Abdullah (2009) scrutinized the textbooks in Malaysia and concluded that their textbooks covered local cultures from expanding circles. A similar finding was detected in various textbooks in Chile also including the local culture instead of the target one (McKay, 2003). In our study, the most dominant ideological component was culture (75.87% in global textbooks and 77.80% in local textbooks) whose components contain social norms, traditions, beliefs, social values (Williamson, 2000). Surprisingly, in both locally and globally written textbooks, the ideology of culture was prevalent (75.87% in global textbooks and 77.80% in local textbooks). This component was both implicitly and explicitly presented in the textbooks analyzed in this study.

Limitations: Taking the extent of the study into consideration, specific limitations already subsist in hand. Initially, choosing textbooks for the analysis of the existing ideological and hegemonic practices in the materials is a difficult task; hence, a particular and convenience selection criterion was selected. Additionally, as the scope of the study is constructed on English as a foreign or second language - a lingua franca, the selection was built on textbooks written globally and locally.

Conclusion: In locally written textbooks, multiculturalism and law-related issues were barely mentioned, while few religion, politics and gender-related issues were directly mentioned. Some topics, although they were very pivotal across the globe, were never mentioned. The topics of poverty, slavery, and racism were by no means focused on in the textbooks. Thus, it can be said that some topics are underrepresented or never represented owing to the fact that these topics might be too risky. As for the ideology of language, this element was emphasized in both global and local textbooks. The element of education was moderately stressed. Another important element is sport that is prevalent in both global and local EFL textbooks.

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Literature and the Anorexic Body. Cambridge: CUP, 2004. Print. Malson, Helen. The Thin Woman: Feminism, Post-structuralism and the Social Psychology of Anorexia Nervosa. London: Routledge, 1998. Print. Orbach, Israel. “The Body-Mind of the Suicidal Person.” Cognition and Suicide: Theory, Research, and Therapy. Ed. Thomas Ellis. Washington: American Psychological Association, 2006: 193-214. Print. Rossetti, Christina. Poems and Prose. Oxford: OUP, 2008. Print. Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady. London: Virago, 1985. Print. Tofighi, Bhaman. “A Study of the Relationship